TV Guide

Fri 21st July

Morning

Medieval Murder Mysteries

The effeminate and weak son of the warrior king Edward Longshanks met a death almost too horrible to contemplate in Berkeley Castle in 1327 (it involved a red hot poker). This is a simply extraordinary tale of sexual shenanigans and medieval politics - but is the awful story of Edward's death actually true? Or is it another example of powerful medieval propaganda?

Fri 21st July

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Fri 21st July

Noon

The Universe

Within our immense universe lies a lesser-known world of tiny particles.

Fri 21st July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Fri 21st July

The Somme 1916 - From Both Sides

This documentary presents the cataclysmic events that began on July 1, 1916, for the first time, from both sides of No Man's Land.

Fri 21st July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Fri 21st July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Fri 21st July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

From botched beheadings, mob executions and controversy over the first Queen of England - the Tower of London's history encompasses it all. Tudor historian Suzannah Lipscomb and journalist Joe Crowley team up to investigate three gruesome stories which challenge our ingrained beliefs about the infamous Tower. Was the Tower really a slick one-stop-shop for beheadings and if so why did it take five blows to decapitate King Charles II's illegitimate son? Just how did the mob manage to get into the Tower to seize one of King Richard II's key advisor's during the Peasants Revolt of 1381? And, how important is the Tower for a wannabe King or Queen in securing the throne of England? Think you know the Tower of London? Time to think again.

Fri 21st July

Evening

Medieval Murder Mysteries

Bad, bad King John - the treacherous brother who tried to take his brother King Richard's throne while he was away fighting during the Crusades. John is something of a pantomime villain these days and his popular image as a selfish, cruel, tyrannical, violent man is largely true, although he was well-read and a capable administrator. But did he personally murder his errant nephew Arthur of Brittany to prevent him from succeeding to the throne of England. It's a great story, shocking if true - but is it?

Fri 21st July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Fri 21st July

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Fri 21st July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Fri 21st July

Going Medieval

Mike Loades has spent his life exploring history. He is a historian who believes that when you get your hands on the past, you discover what a surprising place it was - a place with familiar challenges but very different solutions. Now Mike is going medieval to discover for himself what it was actually like to live, work, and fight through this extraordinary period of history. He has chosen tasks and challenges that will take us closer to amazing medieval reality than ever before. Throughout the programme, Mike is joined by skilled experts to help in everything from swordplay to feasting and hygiene to hunting.

Sat 22nd July

Morning

The Missing Evidence

Six captivating unsolved mysteries. New evidence, but will the truth out? Is a bathing circus elephant in the 1930s the true source of the Loch Ness Monster myth? Why did Marilyn Monroe spend her last night arguing with mafia bosses? We explore the mystery, and reach for the answers.

Sat 22nd July

Great British Ghosts

Michaela visits the notorious Galleries of Justice in the centre of Nottingham. The current building was used as a courthouse and jail since 1780, and over the last 230 years, hundreds of prisoners were executed there. It is believed to be one of the most haunted locations in Britain. Michaela then travels to the city of London to visit a historic pub called the Viaduct Tavern. It is one of the last examples of an old Victorian Gin Palace remaining in the city. Its clients were most likely poor and working class due to the tavern being in a very unreputable area, and also right next door to two major debtor's prisons.

Sat 22nd July

Great British Ghosts

Michaela visits the infamous Hellfire Caves in West Wycombe Park. The huge estate has been in the hands of the Dashwood family for centuries. The Caves were built under a hillside during the 18th-century and played host to an aristocratic society called the Hellfire Club. It was rumoured that they practised black magic and satanic worship within the caves. Michaela visits the historic Ostrich Inn, in Colnbrook near Slough. It dates back to the 1500s but now finds itself just half a mile from the end of Heathrow Airport's main runway. Its most infamous landlords, from the medieval times, were said to have murdered at least 60 guests as they slept on their beds before using a contraption which tipped them down into the kitchen and into cauldrons of boiling water.

Sat 22nd July

Ancient Aliens: The Ultimate Evidence

Theorist Giorgio Tsoukalos explores one of the most compelling and mysterious locations on Earth, Puma Punku. Forty miles west of La Paz, Bolivia - isolated high in the Andes Mountains - lie the mysterious ancient ruins of Puma Punku. Spread across a desert plateau at an altitude over 12,000 feet, the megalithic stones found scattered here are among the largest on the planet - measuring up to 26 feet long and weighing more than 100 tons each. Mainstream scientists believe native people used primitive stone tools to construct the site approximately 2000 years ago. But in 1945, archaeologist Arthur Posnansky proposed that Puma Punku was much, much older - perhaps going back to 15,000 BC. And Ancient Astronaut theorists point to the intricate stonework and interlocking qualities of the megalithic stone blocks as evidence of the use of advanced technology - technology of an otherworldly origin. Could Puma Punku have been built by extraterrestrials? And if so, why?

Sat 22nd July

UFO Hunters

There are locations all over the globe, like the Bermuda Triangle, where the Earth's energies result in a preponderance of mysterious activity. The team travels to Sedona, Arizona, long known for strange phenomena, to interview witnesses to unexplained sightings of lights and objects in the skies. Here they explore the concept of vortexes, which are places on the Earth's surface where lines of energy meet. They link these spots to the Sedona sightings and other incidents, like the Hudson Valley UFO flap of the 1980s. Later, Tim and Jeff consult an astrophysicist who suggests that inter-dimensional travel via Vortexes may be entirely possible under Einstein's Theory of Relativity.

Sat 22nd July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Sat 22nd July

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Sat 22nd July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Sat 22nd July

Going Medieval

Mike Loades has spent his life exploring history. He is a historian who believes that when you get your hands on the past, you discover what a surprising place it was - a place with familiar challenges but very different solutions. Now Mike is going medieval to discover for himself what it was actually like to live, work, and fight through this extraordinary period of history. He has chosen tasks and challenges that will take us closer to amazing medieval reality than ever before. Throughout the programme, Mike is joined by skilled experts to help in everything from swordplay to feasting and hygiene to hunting.

Sat 22nd July

Time Team

Sir Tony Robinson and the experts turn their backs on Benidorm to travel a few miles up the coast to the small port of Denia to show what life was like 1000 years ago, when Denia was an Islamic settlement run by a pirate king.

Sat 22nd July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

From botched beheadings, mob executions and controversy over the first Queen of England - the Tower of London's history encompasses it all. Tudor historian Suzannah Lipscomb and journalist Joe Crowley team up to investigate three gruesome stories which challenge our ingrained beliefs about the infamous Tower. Was the Tower really a slick one-stop-shop for beheadings and if so why did it take five blows to decapitate King Charles II's illegitimate son? Just how did the mob manage to get into the Tower to seize one of King Richard II's key advisor's during the Peasants Revolt of 1381? And, how important is the Tower for a wannabe King or Queen in securing the throne of England? Think you know the Tower of London? Time to think again.

Sat 22nd July

Medieval Murder Mysteries

Bad, bad King John - the treacherous brother who tried to take his brother King Richard's throne while he was away fighting during the Crusades. John is something of a pantomime villain these days and his popular image as a selfish, cruel, tyrannical, violent man is largely true, although he was well-read and a capable administrator. But did he personally murder his errant nephew Arthur of Brittany to prevent him from succeeding to the throne of England. It's a great story, shocking if true - but is it?

Sat 22nd July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Sat 22nd July

Noon

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Sat 22nd July

Secrets of Great British Castles

The romantic appearance of castles across Britain belies their turbulent history as their walls are littered with the secrets of battles, sieges, intrigue and murder. Hosted by Dan Jones, this program brings you behind the scenes of Britain's greatest castles, and with dramatic stories and insightful interviews unravels the tales of the iconic fortifications and strongholds that are at the very core of British history. Filmed in stunning locations in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, each episode peels back the layers of six famous castles and from its foundation onwards, we discover its notorious inhabitants, infamous battles and the local communities that have shaped each fortress to stand as an iconic structure today. With a compelling narrative and prime-time production values boosted by computer graphics, aerial footage and dramatic reconstructions, this program is an important living history series that will inform, educate and entertain TV audiences across the world.

Sat 22nd July

King Alfred and the Anglo Saxons

Alfred's children continue the family plan to create a kingdom of all the English. The tale begins with a savage Civil War in a bleak decade of snow and famine, culminating in an epic victory over the Vikings near Wolverhampton in 910. Filmed in the Fens and Winchester, Gloucester Oxford and Rome, the key figure in this episode is Alfred's daughter Aethelflaed, the ruler of Mercia. Michael Wood recovers her story from a copy of a lost chronicle written in Mercia in her lifetime which in the film we hear read in Old English. One of the great forgotten figures in British history, Aethelflaed led armies, built fortresses, campaigned against the Vikings and was a brilliant diplomat. Her fame spread across the British Isles, beloved by her warriors and her people she was known simply as 'the Lady of the Mercians'. Without her, concludes Michael Wood, "England might never have happened".

Sat 22nd July

Inside The Tower Of London

The Tower of London, for almost 1000 years at the heart of state life in the UK, is one of the most famous buildings in the world. Constructed soon after the Norman conquest of Britain in 1066, it has served as a Royal Palace, fortress, prison, place of execution for queens, an edifice to scare the population, royal zoo, mint and keeper of the Crown Jewels. Yet few know its full story. In this series, aided by historian Stephen Porter of King's College, University of London, and author of The Biography of the Tower of London, and including some beautiful re-enactments, we hear some startling stories and terrifying tales.

Sat 22nd July

The Quizeum

The quiz show that celebrates unique and fascinating museums around the country. Every episode is set in a different museum, where a team of expert panellists pit their knowledgeable wits against each other.

Sat 22nd July

The World From Above

A breathtaking series of aerial programs offering an entirely different view of the world. From 10,000 feet down to just a few feet above ground, discover new perspectives through thrilling journeys, from mountains and great cities to fantastic castles and the great natural wonders of the globe. This series travels everywhere from Spain to South Africa, from the north of Iceland to North Carolina in the USA.

Sat 22nd July

Britain's Ancient Tracks

Britain is criss-crossed by a network of ancient track ways that have been travelled for over 5000 years. Tony Robinson explores the mysteries and legends of these remarkable routes.

Sat 22nd July

Evening

Building Australia

The homestead is unique among Australian houses as it is inextricably tied to the work place. Central to a working property it is, traditionally, something that is expected to pass through the generations.

Sat 22nd July

Legendary Hotels

Architecture and design meet historical events and celebrities. Explore the luxury, location and comfort of eight hotels, looking at their culture, art, history, glamour and mystery.

Sat 22nd July

Ancient Discoveries

Explore ancient inventions and engineering that were previously believed to have been created only in modern times. Experts and archaeological digs continue to reveal new evidence into these inventions.

Sat 22nd July

Rosslyn Chapel: A Treasure In Stone

An expression of unbridled creativity, Rosslyn Chapel was carved 500 years ago by master stonemasons brought in from all over Europe. It was their patron's way of trying to secure his place in heaven.

Sat 22nd July

The Plantagenets

Ruling for over 300 years as Kings of England, Dukes of France and Counts of Anjou, the Plantagenets were one of Europe's most dysfunctional yet longest ruling royal dynasties. Although ultimately driven by the wealth and glory a crown brought, they also managed to forge the foundations of the British Parliament and legal system, in between deposing each other of crowns and the warring that would eventually end their line, in the famous War of the Roses. In three fascinating programmes, Robert Bartlett takes viewers on a journey through chivalric knights and wicked queens, bursting with anecdotes, illuminated manuscripts, buildings and fascinating artefacts to tell the story of this fabled family of kings.

Sat 22nd July

Inquisition

The tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave. It continued for nearly four hundred years. The first auto-da-fe was held in Seville on February 6, 1481: six people were burned alive. From there, the Inquisition grew rapidly. In 1483, Jews were expelled from all of Andalusia. Evidence that was used to identify a Jew included the absence of chimney smoke on Saturdays (a sign the family might secretly be honouring the Sabbath) or the buying of many vegetables before passover or the purchase of meat from a converted butcher. The court employed physical torture to extract confessions. Different sources give different estimates of the number of trials and executions in this period but at least 2,000 people were executed, the great majority being of Jewish origin. Consequently, the number of Jews who left Spain is not even approximately known. Historians of the period give extremely high figures: possibly up to 800,000 people - a huge exodus at the time. The Inquisition not only hunted for Protestants and for Jews but also searched for false or relapsed converts among the Moriscos, forced converts from Islam, who were suspected of practising Islam in secret.

Sat 22nd July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 23rd July

Morning

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Sun 23rd July

Hangar 1: The UFO Files

Hangar 1 is full of case files where local and military police officers have encountered incredible events and provided detailed witness accounts of UFOs. Unfortunately, the government and military often ridiculed these officers and threatened their careers. Now police reports are filed directly with MUFON, who value these credible witnesses and fully investigate their reports.

Sun 23rd July

Ancient Aliens

Scientists theorise that when mankind encounters extraterrestrials, we'll need to speak to them through the universal language of mathematics and binary code. But is it possible that extraterrestrials have already been communicating with our greatest mathematicians and engineers? Might they have somehow aided them in bringing about the space age and computers? Ancient Astronaut theorists say yes. As evidence, they point to the true father of the space program, Nikolai Fyodorov, a 'Cosmist' who believed that human civilisation had its origins in outer space and that it was our destiny to return to the cosmos. Wernher von Braun was greatly influenced by Fyodorov and he was motivated by a similar, secret belief when he ran the mission that put the first man on the moon. Is it possible that humanity's greatest visionaries have been carrying out an extraterrestrial master plan?

Sun 23rd July

UFO Hunters

On December 29, 1980, Betty Cash, Vickie Landrum and Colby Landrum took a drive that would soon become a life-changing nightmare. At approximately 9pm, driving through the Piney Woods of Texas, they observed a huge diamond-shaped object flying low above the isolated road, expelling flame and emitting significant heat. That night, all three experienced horrible physical symptoms - nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, weakness and burning sensations all over their bodies. Betty Cash's symptoms soon worsened, and a few days later, she was sent to the emergency room, unable to walk and losing large patches of skin and clumps of hair. The team re-opens this and other famous cases of alleged 'alien effects' to determine if UFOs are leaving behind more than just sightings.

Sun 23rd July

Ancient Discoveries

Explore ancient inventions and engineering that were previously believed to have been created only in modern times. Experts and archaeological digs continue to reveal new evidence into these inventions.

Sun 23rd July

Rosslyn Chapel: A Treasure In Stone

An expression of unbridled creativity, Rosslyn Chapel was carved 500 years ago by master stonemasons brought in from all over Europe. It was their patron's way of trying to secure his place in heaven.

Sun 23rd July

The Plantagenets

Ruling for over 300 years as Kings of England, Dukes of France and Counts of Anjou, the Plantagenets were one of Europe's most dysfunctional yet longest ruling royal dynasties. Although ultimately driven by the wealth and glory a crown brought, they also managed to forge the foundations of the British Parliament and legal system, in between deposing each other of crowns and the warring that would eventually end their line, in the famous War of the Roses. In three fascinating programmes, Robert Bartlett takes viewers on a journey through chivalric knights and wicked queens, bursting with anecdotes, illuminated manuscripts, buildings and fascinating artefacts to tell the story of this fabled family of kings.

Sun 23rd July

Inquisition

The tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave. It continued for nearly four hundred years. The first auto-da-fe was held in Seville on February 6, 1481: six people were burned alive. From there, the Inquisition grew rapidly. In 1483, Jews were expelled from all of Andalusia. Evidence that was used to identify a Jew included the absence of chimney smoke on Saturdays (a sign the family might secretly be honouring the Sabbath) or the buying of many vegetables before passover or the purchase of meat from a converted butcher. The court employed physical torture to extract confessions. Different sources give different estimates of the number of trials and executions in this period but at least 2,000 people were executed, the great majority being of Jewish origin. Consequently, the number of Jews who left Spain is not even approximately known. Historians of the period give extremely high figures: possibly up to 800,000 people - a huge exodus at the time. The Inquisition not only hunted for Protestants and for Jews but also searched for false or relapsed converts among the Moriscos, forced converts from Islam, who were suspected of practising Islam in secret.

Sun 23rd July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 23rd July

Time Team

A team of specialists dig deep to uncover as much as they can in three days about a UK site's archaeology and history.

Sun 23rd July

Rosslyn Chapel: A Treasure In Stone

An expression of unbridled creativity, Rosslyn Chapel was carved 500 years ago by master stonemasons brought in from all over Europe. It was their patron's way of trying to secure his place in heaven.

Sun 23rd July

The Plantagenets

Ruling for over 300 years as Kings of England, Dukes of France and Counts of Anjou, the Plantagenets were one of Europe's most dysfunctional yet longest ruling royal dynasties. Although ultimately driven by the wealth and glory a crown brought, they also managed to forge the foundations of the British Parliament and legal system, in between deposing each other of crowns and the warring that would eventually end their line, in the famous War of the Roses. In three fascinating programmes, Robert Bartlett takes viewers on a journey through chivalric knights and wicked queens, bursting with anecdotes, illuminated manuscripts, buildings and fascinating artefacts to tell the story of this fabled family of kings.

Sun 23rd July

Inquisition

The tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition, commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition, was a tribunal established in 1480 by Catholic Monarchs, Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, ordering Jews and Muslims to convert or leave. It continued for nearly four hundred years. The first auto-da-fe was held in Seville on February 6, 1481: six people were burned alive. From there, the Inquisition grew rapidly. In 1483, Jews were expelled from all of Andalusia. Evidence that was used to identify a Jew included the absence of chimney smoke on Saturdays (a sign the family might secretly be honouring the Sabbath) or the buying of many vegetables before passover or the purchase of meat from a converted butcher. The court employed physical torture to extract confessions. Different sources give different estimates of the number of trials and executions in this period but at least 2,000 people were executed, the great majority being of Jewish origin. Consequently, the number of Jews who left Spain is not even approximately known. Historians of the period give extremely high figures: possibly up to 800,000 people - a huge exodus at the time. The Inquisition not only hunted for Protestants and for Jews but also searched for false or relapsed converts among the Moriscos, forced converts from Islam, who were suspected of practising Islam in secret.

Sun 23rd July

Noon

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 23rd July

Secrets of Great British Castles

In this episode, Dan Jones is in Scotland, at the most besieged castle in the country: Edinburgh Castle. Edinburgh's iconic stronghold has shaped the nation's history. Over the centuries, this ancient fortress, originally defended by Iron Age warriors, has seen battles and sieges; royalty were born, lived and died here; many were tortured here; it was, and still is, a military base; it was a secure jail for prisoners of war; a target for the world's first aerial bombing; and is now Scotland's most-visited paid tourist attraction. Dan learns about the horrific incident that inspired the notorious Red Wedding in Game of Thrones. In 1440, the teenage Earl of Douglas and his brother were murdered in cold blood at a dinner with nine-year-old James II, in David's Tower. This grotesque double murder is now known as The Black Dinner. It's one of the most notorious events in all of Scottish history. Dan also meets a cannon expert who tells him about James II's love of cannons, in particular Mons Meg. Dan fires a cannonball at a disused van to see how much damage a cannon can really do. Along with stunning aerial footage and historical reconstructions, Dan Jones reveals the secrets of Britain's biggest tourist attraction and arguably its greatest castle.

Sun 23rd July

Saints And Sinners

Dr Janina Ramirez discovers how the immensely rich and powerful monasteries, that had dominated British society for a thousand years, were annihilated in less than five years. In the 15th century, eight hundred monasteries in England owned one third of the nation's land. Many monks were living in palatial monasteries and were patrons of the finest art and architecture. Janina examines monastery kitchen records and the bones of a medieval monk to discover the truth behind accusations of monastic gluttony and vice. She also explores how the arrival of the printing press put paid to the monasteries' monopoly of publishing and education. Janina then traces the story of the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell. She explores whether the dissolution was the violent action of a greedy and overbearing monarch or if it was the inevitable 'end of days' for a rotten and outmoded institution. She uncovers stories of shocking corruption alongside examples of extraordinary pious sacrifice. Although not a single monastery survived the systematic liquidation, Janina shows the lasting impact Britain's millennium of monasteries had on our society and culture.

Sun 23rd July

Great Continental Railway Journeys

Michael Portillo embarks on a nostalgic railway adventure, which takes him across the heart of Europe.

Sun 23rd July

Building Wonders

Archaeologist Julian Richards travels through the west of England to discover how some of Great Britain's most treasured structures were built. Using impressive CGI techniques, the real locations and the builders' plans, he takes us inside the minds of original architects, designers and builders to explore the detail of six great iconic endeavours, helping us to understand the motives and inspiration that went into their building. From the precision of Stonehenge; the shafts of the Box Tunnel and the sleek, blue print lines of Concorde he discovers that those who built these vast constructs all shared a common goal: a driving vision to create something with a lasting impression.

Sun 23rd July

Treblinka: Hitler's Secret Death Camp

For seventy years a wooded site an hour outside Warsaw has kept hidden one of the most appalling secrets of WWII the true nature, scale and operation of Treblinka, one of Hitler's most lethal extermination camps. Bulldozed in 1943 by the Nazis in an attempt to destroy all evidence of what had happened, the site was planted with trees and a Ukrainian farmer installed. This film follows the work of British forensic archaeologist Dr Caroline Sturdy Colls investigating this 20th century cover-up, as she pieces together the first definitive description of Treblinka 2. Even today the location of the gas chambers, where over 870,000 Jews and Gypsies were murdered, is still not known for certain. The location of key buildings, some burial pits and even the size of the camp are all still in dispute. Through her painstaking investigations over five years a forensically accurate picture of Treblinka has emerged, and in this film we follow Dr Sturdy Colls as she returns to Treblinka to complete her work. This summer the first ever LiDar aerial survey of a death camp site was carried out, revealing a full plan of Treblinka 1 and 2 as well as a host of new evidence. The value of a LiDar survey is that it enables the creation of an aerial ground survey where there are trees and vegetation by stripping them away digitally - so allowing for the first time analysis of all disturbances to the ground beneath. Dr Sturdy-Colls' work at Treblinka is the first attempt since the end of WWII to establish what happened at Treblinka 1 and 2. The Nazis claimed that Treblinka 2 was a railway transit camp through which the Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto were transported before being moved further East, a carefully constructed lie that is repeated even today by Holocaust deniers. Dr Sturdy Colls' work, in conjunction with the Museum authorities at Treblinka, is intended after 70 years to provide a conclusive account of what happened at Treblinka.

Sun 23rd July

Evening

Building Australia

John Doyle tells the story of what many did with their leisure - they built and, when they could, retreated to weekenders.

Sun 23rd July

Dan Snow's Norman Walks

Dan Snow uncovers the forgotten Norman Empire, one that has been largely overlooked, yet laid the foundation for modern Britain.

Sun 23rd July

The Vikings Uncovered

Dan Snow researches how the Norwegian and British Vikings settled in Iceland and formed their communities. Dan examines how the Vikings expanded first as raiders, then settlers and traders throughout Britain and beyond to Iceland and Greenland; discovering that they aren't just the 'Hells Angels' of the medieval world - rapacious raiders of legend - but shrewd entrepreneurs and inventors. Dan researches how the Vikings became advanced in metal production, receiving a lesson in period iron production, as he is taught how the Vikings forged their own nails. Dan then explores how the Vikings voyaged thousands of miles when most ships never left the shoreline, by learning how they sailed and navigated on an exact replica of an 11th century Viking ship. And finally, in North America, Dan and Sarah excavate what could be the most westerly Viking settlement ever discovered. Can they prove that the Vikings did really settle in the New World 500 years before Columbus?

Sun 23rd July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the 20th-century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed. Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the 20th-century and set up the 21st? More than a decade since the close of the century, we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from 101 to one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. This episode we count down from 75 to 63 and showcase some of the most surprising characters in our showcase. From Josephine Baker, who walked along Paris streets with her pet cheetah, to leaders who have forever changed their countries and our idea of politics. If nothing else, this episode shows us that influence can come in many different flavours - some nicer than others.

Sun 23rd July

The Unshakeable Hagia Sophia

Since it was built in 537 AD, Hagia Sophia has been a Christian church, an Islamic mosque, and a secular museum. Built at the intersection of major fault lines, the structure has endured more than a dozen devastating earthquakes. How does it survive? An international team of experts investigates Hagia Sophia's seismic secrets using radar, laser, and computer technologies - even building an eight-ton scale model to place on a motorised shake table to simulate the effects of an earthquake. Scientists race to discover how Hagia Sophia was built, why it still stands, and whether it will survive as Istanbul braces for the next major earthquake.

Sun 23rd July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Sun 23rd July

History of Warfare

In newly conquered England, the years which followed the Battle of Hastings were marked by violent turmoil. King William eventually responded to the constant uprisings of the Anglo-Saxon people by laying waste to the north of England. This is a the story of a brutal period in English history, a time which saw the introduction of feudalism, a proliferation of Norman churches and castles and the completion of the remarkable Domesday book.

Mon 24th July

Morning

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Mon 24th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

It was time for the American navy to get back on course after Pearl Harbor, and in the four-day Battle for the Coral Sea, they claimed victory over the Japanese.

Mon 24th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Mon 24th July

Tony Robinson's Time Walks

Wellington, the tiny capital city perched at the bottom of the North Island is set to become the Hollywood of the Pacific, thanks to visionary filmmaker Sir Peter Jackson. If he wants some inspiration, Tony can provide him with heart-warming pooches, bloody strike re-enactments, and even an iconic New Zealand dessert.

Mon 24th July

The Vikings Uncovered

Dan Snow researches how the Norwegian and British Vikings settled in Iceland and formed their communities. Dan examines how the Vikings expanded first as raiders, then settlers and traders throughout Britain and beyond to Iceland and Greenland; discovering that they aren't just the 'Hells Angels' of the medieval world - rapacious raiders of legend - but shrewd entrepreneurs and inventors. Dan researches how the Vikings became advanced in metal production, receiving a lesson in period iron production, as he is taught how the Vikings forged their own nails. Dan then explores how the Vikings voyaged thousands of miles when most ships never left the shoreline, by learning how they sailed and navigated on an exact replica of an 11th century Viking ship. And finally, in North America, Dan and Sarah excavate what could be the most westerly Viking settlement ever discovered. Can they prove that the Vikings did really settle in the New World 500 years before Columbus?

Mon 24th July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the 20th-century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed. Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the 20th-century and set up the 21st? More than a decade since the close of the century, we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from 101 to one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. This episode we count down from 75 to 63 and showcase some of the most surprising characters in our showcase. From Josephine Baker, who walked along Paris streets with her pet cheetah, to leaders who have forever changed their countries and our idea of politics. If nothing else, this episode shows us that influence can come in many different flavours - some nicer than others.

Mon 24th July

The Unshakeable Hagia Sophia

Since it was built in 537 AD, Hagia Sophia has been a Christian church, an Islamic mosque, and a secular museum. Built at the intersection of major fault lines, the structure has endured more than a dozen devastating earthquakes. How does it survive? An international team of experts investigates Hagia Sophia's seismic secrets using radar, laser, and computer technologies - even building an eight-ton scale model to place on a motorised shake table to simulate the effects of an earthquake. Scientists race to discover how Hagia Sophia was built, why it still stands, and whether it will survive as Istanbul braces for the next major earthquake.

Mon 24th July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 24th July

History of Warfare

In newly conquered England, the years which followed the Battle of Hastings were marked by violent turmoil. King William eventually responded to the constant uprisings of the Anglo-Saxon people by laying waste to the north of England. This is a the story of a brutal period in English history, a time which saw the introduction of feudalism, a proliferation of Norman churches and castles and the completion of the remarkable Domesday book.

Mon 24th July

Time Team

A team of specialists dig deep to uncover as much as they can in three days about a UK site's archaeology and history.

Mon 24th July

The Vikings Uncovered

Dan Snow researches how the Norwegian and British Vikings settled in Iceland and formed their communities. Dan examines how the Vikings expanded first as raiders, then settlers and traders throughout Britain and beyond to Iceland and Greenland; discovering that they aren't just the 'Hells Angels' of the medieval world - rapacious raiders of legend - but shrewd entrepreneurs and inventors. Dan researches how the Vikings became advanced in metal production, receiving a lesson in period iron production, as he is taught how the Vikings forged their own nails. Dan then explores how the Vikings voyaged thousands of miles when most ships never left the shoreline, by learning how they sailed and navigated on an exact replica of an 11th century Viking ship. And finally, in North America, Dan and Sarah excavate what could be the most westerly Viking settlement ever discovered. Can they prove that the Vikings did really settle in the New World 500 years before Columbus?

Mon 24th July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the 20th-century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed. Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the 20th-century and set up the 21st? More than a decade since the close of the century, we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from 101 to one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. This episode we count down from 75 to 63 and showcase some of the most surprising characters in our showcase. From Josephine Baker, who walked along Paris streets with her pet cheetah, to leaders who have forever changed their countries and our idea of politics. If nothing else, this episode shows us that influence can come in many different flavours - some nicer than others.

Mon 24th July

The Unshakeable Hagia Sophia

Since it was built in 537 AD, Hagia Sophia has been a Christian church, an Islamic mosque, and a secular museum. Built at the intersection of major fault lines, the structure has endured more than a dozen devastating earthquakes. How does it survive? An international team of experts investigates Hagia Sophia's seismic secrets using radar, laser, and computer technologies - even building an eight-ton scale model to place on a motorised shake table to simulate the effects of an earthquake. Scientists race to discover how Hagia Sophia was built, why it still stands, and whether it will survive as Istanbul braces for the next major earthquake.

Mon 24th July

Noon

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 24th July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Mon 24th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

It was time for the American navy to get back on course after Pearl Harbor, and in the four-day Battle for the Coral Sea, they claimed victory over the Japanese.

Mon 24th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Mon 24th July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Mon 24th July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

From WWII executions and Guy Fawkes' grisly torture and gruesome death to a 16th century prison break, the Tower of London's history encompasses it all. Tudor historian Suzannah Lipscomb and journalist Joe Crowley team up to investigate three extraordinary stories which challenge our beliefs about the infamous Tower and its role in British history. Just how and why were state executions carried out at the Tower during WWII? Why do we remember Guy Fawkes over the other gunpowder plot conspirators and what exactly happened to him when he was captured? What enabled an undercover Catholic priest to escape this impenetrable fortress and a traitor's death? Think you know the Tower of London? Time to think again.

Mon 24th July

Evening

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of illuminated manuscripts that were custom-made for kings, and explores the medieval world they reveal. In this episode, she begins her journey with the first Anglo-Saxon rulers to create a united England, encountering books in the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection which are over a thousand years old and a royal family tree which is five metres long. She finds out about a king who had a reputation for chasing nuns, and reads a book created as a wedding gift for a ten year old prince.

Mon 24th July

King Arthur: The Legend

A celebration of the power of a great myth, from its magical Celtic origins to global popularity today. Across the centuries, the tales of King Arthur have gripped the popular imagination. Rich with dramatic reconstructions and lavish photography of ancient heritage sites and mystic Celtic landscapes, this thrilling program reveals how the stories of King Arthur have grown and developed across 1000 years and more. The legend is alive and well, on screen and in print, intriguing a new generation who are in search of an inspiring hero figure and a Camelot for their own age.

Mon 24th July

Britain's Ancient Tracks

Britain is criss-crossed by a network of ancient track ways that have been travelled for over 5000 years. Tony Robinson explores the mysteries and legends of these remarkable routes.

Mon 24th July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 24th July

Race For The White House

Narrated by Kevin Spacey, using rare archival footage, each episode in this series tells the story of one iconic campaign for President of the United States. In this episode, Harry Truman begins a slow and nail-biting journey back to the White House, using political smarts and relentless determination.

Mon 24th July

Clash of Warriors

In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Five months later, on January 17, 1991, a UN sanctioned coalition force began a missile and air offensive, followed by a ground offensive in February, code-named Operation Desert Storm, against positions in Kuwait and Iraq. The Gulf War coalition was led by US General H Norman Schwarzkopf. The Iraqis were led by their dictator Saddam Hussein. Watch "Stormin' Norman" face off against Saddam in a high-tech showdown.

Tue 25th July

Morning

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Tue 25th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Hitler's Desert Fox, Rommel pushed forward at El Alamein, but with the arrival of the maverick British General, Bernard Montgomery, to take charge of the Eighth Army in North Africa, the wind of change was about to blow. Meanwhile on the Russian Front Hitler's troops advanced their Stalingrad campaign, with the Fuhrer boasting that this key city would soon be his.

Tue 25th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Tue 25th July

Tony Robinson's Time Walks

Tony's itchy feet take him to tropical Townsville. Plenty of war history here, but as usual, it's the hidden history that uncovers the not-so-well known side of a far North Queensland treasure. High-altitude graffiti, the invention of texting! Townsville will surprise you.

Tue 25th July

King Arthur: The Legend

A celebration of the power of a great myth, from its magical Celtic origins to global popularity today. Across the centuries, the tales of King Arthur have gripped the popular imagination. Rich with dramatic reconstructions and lavish photography of ancient heritage sites and mystic Celtic landscapes, this thrilling program reveals how the stories of King Arthur have grown and developed across 1000 years and more. The legend is alive and well, on screen and in print, intriguing a new generation who are in search of an inspiring hero figure and a Camelot for their own age.

Tue 25th July

Britain's Ancient Tracks

Britain is criss-crossed by a network of ancient track ways that have been travelled for over 5000 years. Tony Robinson explores the mysteries and legends of these remarkable routes.

Tue 25th July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Tue 25th July

Race For The White House

Narrated by Kevin Spacey, using rare archival footage, each episode in this series tells the story of one iconic campaign for President of the United States. In this episode, Harry Truman begins a slow and nail-biting journey back to the White House, using political smarts and relentless determination.

Tue 25th July

Clash of Warriors

In 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. Five months later, on January 17, 1991, a UN sanctioned coalition force began a missile and air offensive, followed by a ground offensive in February, code-named Operation Desert Storm, against positions in Kuwait and Iraq. The Gulf War coalition was led by US General H Norman Schwarzkopf. The Iraqis were led by their dictator Saddam Hussein. Watch "Stormin' Norman" face off against Saddam in a high-tech showdown.

Tue 25th July

Time Team

A team of specialists dig deep to uncover as much as they can in three days about a UK site's archaeology and history.

Tue 25th July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

From WWII executions and Guy Fawkes' grisly torture and gruesome death to a 16th century prison break, the Tower of London's history encompasses it all. Tudor historian Suzannah Lipscomb and journalist Joe Crowley team up to investigate three extraordinary stories which challenge our beliefs about the infamous Tower and its role in British history. Just how and why were state executions carried out at the Tower during WWII? Why do we remember Guy Fawkes over the other gunpowder plot conspirators and what exactly happened to him when he was captured? What enabled an undercover Catholic priest to escape this impenetrable fortress and a traitor's death? Think you know the Tower of London? Time to think again.

Tue 25th July

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of illuminated manuscripts that were custom-made for kings, and explores the medieval world they reveal. In this episode, she begins her journey with the first Anglo-Saxon rulers to create a united England, encountering books in the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection which are over a thousand years old and a royal family tree which is five metres long. She finds out about a king who had a reputation for chasing nuns, and reads a book created as a wedding gift for a ten year old prince.

Tue 25th July

King Arthur: The Legend

A celebration of the power of a great myth, from its magical Celtic origins to global popularity today. Across the centuries, the tales of King Arthur have gripped the popular imagination. Rich with dramatic reconstructions and lavish photography of ancient heritage sites and mystic Celtic landscapes, this thrilling program reveals how the stories of King Arthur have grown and developed across 1000 years and more. The legend is alive and well, on screen and in print, intriguing a new generation who are in search of an inspiring hero figure and a Camelot for their own age.

Tue 25th July

Noon

Britain's Ancient Tracks

Britain is criss-crossed by a network of ancient track ways that have been travelled for over 5000 years. Tony Robinson explores the mysteries and legends of these remarkable routes.

Tue 25th July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Tue 25th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Hitler's Desert Fox, Rommel pushed forward at El Alamein, but with the arrival of the maverick British General, Bernard Montgomery, to take charge of the Eighth Army in North Africa, the wind of change was about to blow. Meanwhile on the Russian Front Hitler's troops advanced their Stalingrad campaign, with the Fuhrer boasting that this key city would soon be his.

Tue 25th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Tue 25th July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Tue 25th July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

The extraordinary stories of imprisonment, murder and execution behind the walls of Britains most historic and iconic castle.

Tue 25th July

Evening

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of medieval illuminated manuscripts and shows how they gave power to the king and united the kingdom in an age of plague, warfare and rebellion. She discovers that Edward III used the manuscripts he read as a boy to prepare him for his great victory at the battle of Crecy. She reveals how a vigorous new national identity bloomed during the 100 Years War with France (1340-1453). And in the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection she finds out that magnificent manuscripts like the Bedford Hours, were adapted for the education of English princes.

Tue 25th July

Murdered: The Bodies In The Bog

2,000 year-old CSI. A crack team of archaeologists and forensic anthropologists investigate the slaughter of two ancient Britons. The award winning team at Bearkatt Productions unearth two murder mysteries from a bygone age. When bodies were discovered deep in the peat bogs of Ireland and Worsley, outside Manchester, the police weren't banking on their victims being 2,000 years old. Expert examinations reveal horrific injuries including stab wounds, broken bones, blows to the skull and dismembered limbs. Witness the incredible work of forensic scientists as they help detectives to solve these exceptional crimes. With fascinating archaeological revelations, we see how our ancestors' lives were dominated by fear, retribution and savage sacrifices. This gripping film tells the stories of the victims' lives and unravels the secrets of their violent deaths.

Tue 25th July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Tue 25th July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Tue 25th July

Cambodia, Pol Pot & The Khmer Rouge

Between April, 1975 and January, 1979, Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge were responsible for the deaths of 1.7 million people in Cambodia. A quarter of the population were wiped out in one of the most brutal and virulent genocides of the twentieth century. When Phnom Penh fell in 1975, two weeks before Saigon, the city was evacuated. Money was abolished and three million people were sent to the countryside to work as slave labour on collective farms. Pol Pot promised an agrarian utopia to reclaim the glory of Angkor but delivered a regime of mass-extermination, starvation and slaughter. This film explores the life of Pol Pot, the ever-smiling, obsessively secretive leader of the Khmer Rouge. What drove him to inflict such a radical experiment on his own people? How did the Khmer Rouge turn from a band of nationalist revolutionaries into a ruthless killing machine? And why did the West stand by and let it happen? As an international tribunal in Cambodia finally brings the surviving leaders of the Khmer Rouge to justice, it's time to re-examine the gruesome legacy of Pol Pot.

Tue 25th July

The War

Winter-spring 1945: In the Pacific, on the volcanic island of Iwo Jima, the Marines face 21,000 Japanese defenders who, without hope of reinforcement, have been ordered to kill as many Americans as possible before being killed themselves. Once the island is taken, allied bombers set the cities of Japan ablaze, killing hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. Meanwhile, in Europe, hundreds of thousands of Americans are crossing the Rhine and driving into the heart of Germany, while the Russians are within 50 miles of Berlin. This series directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick tells the story of World War II through the personal accounts of a handful of men and women from four quintessentially American towns. It explores the most intimate human dimensions of the greatest cataclysm in history, a worldwide catastrophe that touched the lives of every family on every street in every town in America and demonstrates that in extraordinary times, there are no ordinary lives. Throughout the series, the indelible experience of combat is brought vividly to life as veterans describe what it was like to fight and kill and see men die at places like Monte Cassino and Anzio and Omaha Beach, the Hurtgen Forest and the Vosges Mountains and the Ardennes, and on the other side of the world at Guadalcanal and Tarawa and Saipan, Peleliu and the Philippine Sea and Okinawa. In all of the battle scenes, dramatic historical footage and photographs are combined with extraordinarily realistic sound effects to give the film a terrifying, visceral immediacy. The film honours the bravery, endurance and sacrifice of the generation of Americans who lived through what will always be known simply as The War.

Wed 26th July

Morning

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Wed 26th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

After so many years of German supremacy, as 1942 drew to a close, the Allies were really beginning to make headway. The British made a crucial breakthrough in North Africa, and the Americans pushed the Japanese out of Burma and New Guinea, while in Russia the Germans found themselves surrounded, as the winter snow set in over Stalingrad.

Wed 26th July

Cambodia, Pol Pot & The Khmer Rouge

Between April, 1975 and January, 1979, Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge were responsible for the deaths of 1.7 million people in Cambodia. A quarter of the population were wiped out in one of the most brutal and virulent genocides of the twentieth century. When Phnom Penh fell in 1975, two weeks before Saigon, the city was evacuated. Money was abolished and three million people were sent to the countryside to work as slave labour on collective farms. Pol Pot promised an agrarian utopia to reclaim the glory of Angkor but delivered a regime of mass-extermination, starvation and slaughter. This film explores the life of Pol Pot, the ever-smiling, obsessively secretive leader of the Khmer Rouge. What drove him to inflict such a radical experiment on his own people? How did the Khmer Rouge turn from a band of nationalist revolutionaries into a ruthless killing machine? And why did the West stand by and let it happen? As an international tribunal in Cambodia finally brings the surviving leaders of the Khmer Rouge to justice, it's time to re-examine the gruesome legacy of Pol Pot.

Wed 26th July

Tony Robinson's Time Walks

Sydney's city within a city has always been home to some of Australia's most important colonial history. But in modern times, the one-time breadbasket of the colony is re-inventing itself as a multi-cultural hub. Walking round Parramatta, seeing the faces on the street and feeling the buzz in the air is enough to convince Tony he's seeing the future of Australia.

Wed 26th July

Battle of Kings: Bannockburn

Graphic drama-documentary on this significant victory in Scotland's battle for independence. This drama-documentary tells the story of the pivotal campaign of Scotland's King Robert Bruce against England's King Edward II and the culminating Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, which finally won Scotland its independence. It is shot in a graphic novel style, using dramatic reconstruction and expert historical analysis to investigate the greatest battlefield mystery of the Middle Ages, when the spear-wielding Scottish force destroyed England's largest and most powerful feudal army ever assembled.

Wed 26th July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Wed 26th July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Wed 26th July

Cambodia, Pol Pot & The Khmer Rouge

Between April, 1975 and January, 1979, Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge were responsible for the deaths of 1.7 million people in Cambodia. A quarter of the population were wiped out in one of the most brutal and virulent genocides of the twentieth century. When Phnom Penh fell in 1975, two weeks before Saigon, the city was evacuated. Money was abolished and three million people were sent to the countryside to work as slave labour on collective farms. Pol Pot promised an agrarian utopia to reclaim the glory of Angkor but delivered a regime of mass-extermination, starvation and slaughter. This film explores the life of Pol Pot, the ever-smiling, obsessively secretive leader of the Khmer Rouge. What drove him to inflict such a radical experiment on his own people? How did the Khmer Rouge turn from a band of nationalist revolutionaries into a ruthless killing machine? And why did the West stand by and let it happen? As an international tribunal in Cambodia finally brings the surviving leaders of the Khmer Rouge to justice, it's time to re-examine the gruesome legacy of Pol Pot.

Wed 26th July

The War

Winter-spring 1945: In the Pacific, on the volcanic island of Iwo Jima, the Marines face 21,000 Japanese defenders who, without hope of reinforcement, have been ordered to kill as many Americans as possible before being killed themselves. Once the island is taken, allied bombers set the cities of Japan ablaze, killing hundreds of thousands and leaving millions homeless. Meanwhile, in Europe, hundreds of thousands of Americans are crossing the Rhine and driving into the heart of Germany, while the Russians are within 50 miles of Berlin. This series directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick tells the story of World War II through the personal accounts of a handful of men and women from four quintessentially American towns. It explores the most intimate human dimensions of the greatest cataclysm in history, a worldwide catastrophe that touched the lives of every family on every street in every town in America and demonstrates that in extraordinary times, there are no ordinary lives. Throughout the series, the indelible experience of combat is brought vividly to life as veterans describe what it was like to fight and kill and see men die at places like Monte Cassino and Anzio and Omaha Beach, the Hurtgen Forest and the Vosges Mountains and the Ardennes, and on the other side of the world at Guadalcanal and Tarawa and Saipan, Peleliu and the Philippine Sea and Okinawa. In all of the battle scenes, dramatic historical footage and photographs are combined with extraordinarily realistic sound effects to give the film a terrifying, visceral immediacy. The film honours the bravery, endurance and sacrifice of the generation of Americans who lived through what will always be known simply as The War.

Wed 26th July

Time Team

Tony Robinson and the Team travel to the Roman fort of Birdoswald in Cumbria to carry out the first ever excavation of a Roman cemetery near the wall. But during the dig, which includes a spectacular recreation of a funeral pyre, they also discover the remains of a Roman town that ceased to exist after the year 200. Could it have been one of the largest Roman towns in northern Britain? And why did it die?

Wed 26th July

Bloody Tales Of The Tower

The extraordinary stories of imprisonment, murder and execution behind the walls of Britains most historic and iconic castle.

Wed 26th July

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of medieval illuminated manuscripts and shows how they gave power to the king and united the kingdom in an age of plague, warfare and rebellion. She discovers that Edward III used the manuscripts he read as a boy to prepare him for his great victory at the battle of Crecy. She reveals how a vigorous new national identity bloomed during the 100 Years War with France (1340-1453). And in the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection she finds out that magnificent manuscripts like the Bedford Hours, were adapted for the education of English princes.

Wed 26th July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Wed 26th July

Noon

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Wed 26th July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Wed 26th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

After so many years of German supremacy, as 1942 drew to a close, the Allies were really beginning to make headway. The British made a crucial breakthrough in North Africa, and the Americans pushed the Japanese out of Burma and New Guinea, while in Russia the Germans found themselves surrounded, as the winter snow set in over Stalingrad.

Wed 26th July

Race For The White House

Narrated by Kevin Spacey, using rare archival footage, each episode in this series tells the story of one iconic campaign for President of the United States. In this episode, Harry Truman begins a slow and nail-biting journey back to the White House, using political smarts and relentless determination.

Wed 26th July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Wed 26th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Wed 26th July

Evening

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of illuminated manuscripts that were custom-made for kings, and explores the medieval world they reveal. In this episode, the story of the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection reaches its end with the last great flowering of illumination, in the magnificent courts of the Tudors. She investigates astrological texts and unwraps Henry VII's will - still in its original, extravagantly-decorated velvet cover. She hears music written for Henry VIII; and reads love notes between the king and Anne Boleyn, written in the margins of a prayer book.

Wed 26th July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. Counting down from 62 to 50 we list scientists, revolutionaries, Generals... and even "The King". But Elvis Presley isn't the only surprise in this episode as he stands shoulder to shoulder with Amelia Earhart, Edwin Hubble and more. This episode touches on some issues which remain vital today and choices that changed the world and the way we live.

Wed 26th July

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes investigates the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. Born to an affluent Prussian family, Marx became an angry, idealistic radical, constantly on the run for his political agitating and incendiary writing. In Paris, he first formulated his explosive analysis of capitalism and its corrosive effects on human nature. In Brussels, he co-authored the Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels. Drawing on expert opinion and new evidence, Bettany reveals the flesh-and-blood man and his groundbreaking ideas.

Wed 26th July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Wed 26th July

Ancient Black Ops

This legendary group was an undercover Samurai death squad assembled to wreak revenge for a terrible injustice. Their leader, a Japanese prince called Asano had been executed. Samurai without a leader became outcasts - "Ronin"- displaced and without status. To regain their honour they had to kill the man responsible for their leader's death.

Wed 26th July

Plane Resurrection

We take viewers into the cockpits of the worlds greatest restored fighting aircraft, and into the astonishing lives of the modern day heroes who are dedicating themselves to bringing these engineering masterpieces back to life. The series combines stunning aerial footage with the gritty realism of the dedication and ingenuity needed to breathe new life into the wrecks of battle. Each episode documents the 'life story' of an airframe, its history and pilots, through the eyes of the warbird community charged with bringing history back to flying, fire-breathing life. Rare archive footage of the brutal reality of aerial warfare mixes with expert analysis of the role these aircraft played. Behind the scenes sequences from the multi-million dollar modern rebuilds gives the viewer unique access to the engineers and volunteers facing the almost impossible task of building and flying aircraft that have lain dormant for half a century.

Thu 27th July

Morning

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Thu 27th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

The only option for the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad was surrender, while all across Russia the Red Army consolidated their advantage. Also, as German cities encountered the kind of bombing that Britain faced back in 1940, courtesy of the RAF, the Allied commanders planned a return to France at the Casablanca Conference.

Thu 27th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Thu 27th July

Tony Robinson's Time Walks

Geelong missed out on being Victoria's capital thanks to a quirk of nature, but this beautiful seaside town doesn't lack for unusual history. Horses hiding out, never to be seen again prison escapees, false maps, and a load of old bollards are proof positive that a walk around Geelong is one not to be missed.

Thu 27th July

National Park: Secrets & Legends

In 2004, a Park Ranger camps out in a remote part of the Grand Canyon. She is near an area called the Confluence, where the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers meet. She awakens to hear voices, and sees people dressed in 1950s clothing being led by Native spirits toward the Confluence. Some believe these figures are from the first major plane crash in US history, in 1956, when two commercial airliners collided over the canyon with 128 dead and no survivors. This mysterious sighting is the main force of the program's plot. The next mystery in the same area in 1909, when a lone explorer GE Kinkaid discovers a cave 1500 feet above the canyon walls. The cave appears alien, and Kinkaid says it spirals deep into the cliff, with room for up to 50,000 people. He says it contains artifacts from ancient Asia and Egypt, but that the Smithsonian took these items and they disappeared. Then, from 1961, the next clue is established. A university student named Hank Krastman is led blindfolded by a mysterious Hopi Indian into the Grand Canyon. He is led to a rock wall which he discovers is a hologram gateway to a secret city with advanced technology. After hours in this magical city, Hank goes back to find it but cannot. The link is clearly made to the previous stories, hinting there may be a hidden presence in Grand Canyon National Park. The final piece comes from the Canyon's indigenous peoples, who claim the Confluence is near their most sacred site: the Sipapu. They claim the Sipapu is home of a non-human species called the Ant People, who have protected them from natural catastrophe for 3000 years. The program concludes with the question whether the Sipapu is the centre of power in the Grand Canyon, and the reason for a long series of mysterious incidents and encounters.

Thu 27th July

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes investigates the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. Born to an affluent Prussian family, Marx became an angry, idealistic radical, constantly on the run for his political agitating and incendiary writing. In Paris, he first formulated his explosive analysis of capitalism and its corrosive effects on human nature. In Brussels, he co-authored the Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels. Drawing on expert opinion and new evidence, Bettany reveals the flesh-and-blood man and his groundbreaking ideas.

Thu 27th July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Thu 27th July

Ancient Black Ops

This legendary group was an undercover Samurai death squad assembled to wreak revenge for a terrible injustice. Their leader, a Japanese prince called Asano had been executed. Samurai without a leader became outcasts - "Ronin"- displaced and without status. To regain their honour they had to kill the man responsible for their leader's death.

Thu 27th July

Plane Resurrection

We take viewers into the cockpits of the worlds greatest restored fighting aircraft, and into the astonishing lives of the modern day heroes who are dedicating themselves to bringing these engineering masterpieces back to life. The series combines stunning aerial footage with the gritty realism of the dedication and ingenuity needed to breathe new life into the wrecks of battle. Each episode documents the 'life story' of an airframe, its history and pilots, through the eyes of the warbird community charged with bringing history back to flying, fire-breathing life. Rare archive footage of the brutal reality of aerial warfare mixes with expert analysis of the role these aircraft played. Behind the scenes sequences from the multi-million dollar modern rebuilds gives the viewer unique access to the engineers and volunteers facing the almost impossible task of building and flying aircraft that have lain dormant for half a century.

Thu 27th July

Time Team

Time Team are in search of the real-life Flintstones at one of Britain's major early Stone Age sites at a holiday camp at Elveden in Suffolk. The site dates back 400,000 years when our early ancestors shared the country with lions, rhinos and elephants but, contrary to the movies, definitely no dinosaurs.

Thu 27th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Thu 27th July

The Private Lives of Medieval Kings

Dr Janina Ramirez unlocks the secrets of illuminated manuscripts that were custom-made for kings, and explores the medieval world they reveal. In this episode, the story of the British Library's Royal Manuscripts collection reaches its end with the last great flowering of illumination, in the magnificent courts of the Tudors. She investigates astrological texts and unwraps Henry VII's will - still in its original, extravagantly-decorated velvet cover. She hears music written for Henry VIII; and reads love notes between the king and Anne Boleyn, written in the margins of a prayer book.

Thu 27th July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. Counting down from 62 to 50 we list scientists, revolutionaries, Generals... and even "The King". But Elvis Presley isn't the only surprise in this episode as he stands shoulder to shoulder with Amelia Earhart, Edwin Hubble and more. This episode touches on some issues which remain vital today and choices that changed the world and the way we live.

Thu 27th July

Noon

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes investigates the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. Born to an affluent Prussian family, Marx became an angry, idealistic radical, constantly on the run for his political agitating and incendiary writing. In Paris, he first formulated his explosive analysis of capitalism and its corrosive effects on human nature. In Brussels, he co-authored the Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels. Drawing on expert opinion and new evidence, Bettany reveals the flesh-and-blood man and his groundbreaking ideas.

Thu 27th July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Thu 27th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

The only option for the German Sixth Army at Stalingrad was surrender, while all across Russia the Red Army consolidated their advantage. Also, as German cities encountered the kind of bombing that Britain faced back in 1940, courtesy of the RAF, the Allied commanders planned a return to France at the Casablanca Conference.

Thu 27th July

Hunters in the Sky

A galaxy of international aces are seen in aerial combat as a series prelude. They describe the qualities great aces must have, and recall a heritage that begins with chivalrous fighter duels of World War I and ends when Luftwaffe pilots hone their skills in Spain during the bloody dress rehearsal for World War II.

Thu 27th July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Thu 27th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Thu 27th July

Evening

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Thu 27th July

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Thu 27th July

Apollo: Training NASA's Moon Men

In 1969, Neil Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface and into the history books as the first of only twelve men to walk on the Moon. But in 1961 when Kennedy pledged to put a man on the Moon, NASA had barely put a man into orbit. They had less than 10 years to train a team of astronauts to overcome the unknown challenges of a mission to the Moon. What followed was a rigorous, intense training period that put America's first astronauts through their paces; testing their physical and mental strength, stamina, flying skills and bravery to ensure they were made of the right stuff. But Centrifuges, probing medical tests and jungle survival training was just the beginning, planting flags and footprints wasn't enough; the select few would not only need to pilot the complex spacecraft to and from the moon but also be skilled photographers, geologists and scientists. Featuring stunning NASA footage and expert interviews with Apollo space scientists, this inspirational film explores the early days of astronaut training, following those pioneering pilots from selection to the lunar surface and back again. This is the incredible story of how NASA trained America's best pilots to fly to the Moon, and take one giant leap for Mankind.

Thu 27th July

Apollo 17: The Last Men On The Moon

On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America committed the resources of his nation and launched Project Apollo - the greatest technological undertaking in the history of mankind. But in 1972, only two years after Neil Armstrong first walked on the moon, public and political interest in Apollo had dwindled. NASA was forced to cancel their last three missions, making Apollo 17 man's final mission to the moon. Astronauts Eugene Cernan, Harrison Schmitt and Ronald Evans were the three brave men chosen to fly NASA's final mission. They have been written up in history books and acknowledged by the space and scientific communities, but have never received the public recognition they truly deserved. Apollo 17's voyage to the moon was the crowning glory of man's lunar exploration. This documentary features spectacular NASA footage and exclusive interviews with space scientists who worked on the Apollo programme during the 1960s and '70s. This is the remarkable story of the determination and courage of a generation, and a tribute to three brave astronauts and the thousands of men and women behind them during the final days of NASA's Apollo programme.

Thu 27th July

The Universe

Hitch a ride on the journey of a comet as it roars from the cold, dark outer reaches of the solar system to the fiery surface of the sun.

Thu 27th July

Ancient Aliens

In the 21st century, technology is heading in a radical new direction, the merging of man and machine. Smart drugs, nanorobots, and machine-printed organs are just a few of the cutting-edge innovations catalysing the evolution of humankind into an entirely new species. Transhumanists envision a future in which we become cyborgs, achieving far superior intelligence, the ability to survive beyond Earth's atmosphere without a spacesuit, and the possibility of immortality. But might similarly superhuman beings have walked the Earth once before? Beings that our ancestors regarded as gods? Ancient Astronaut theorists say yes, and suggest that we are simply following the course they set us on from the very beginning of mankind, to transcend our flesh and become like our extraterrestrial creators.

Fri 28th July

Morning

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Fri 28th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Even when there seemed little hope of making an impact against the Germans, the fight for freedom continued. The Polish Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto rose up against their oppressors and although facing the horrors of the Nazi Concentration Camps, German army units were needed to deal with the situation. The French Resistance was also formed, and with the Dambuster Raids attacking the Industrial Ruhr, the Allied progress although still slow, was at least sure.

Fri 28th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Fri 28th July

Tony Robinson's Time Walks

Alice Springs is a tiny speck in a vast, red, dry interior but it's a fertile oasis of historical highlights - the centre of an early mass communications trail, a vital transport link in the battle to save Australia from invasion, and a vital link in a chain of nuclear early-warning sites. And that's not all. Tony's last walk finishes at one of Central Australia's most spectacular natural landmarks.

Fri 28th July

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Fri 28th July

Apollo: Training NASA's Moon Men

In 1969, Neil Armstrong stepped onto the lunar surface and into the history books as the first of only twelve men to walk on the Moon. But in 1961 when Kennedy pledged to put a man on the Moon, NASA had barely put a man into orbit. They had less than 10 years to train a team of astronauts to overcome the unknown challenges of a mission to the Moon. What followed was a rigorous, intense training period that put America's first astronauts through their paces; testing their physical and mental strength, stamina, flying skills and bravery to ensure they were made of the right stuff. But Centrifuges, probing medical tests and jungle survival training was just the beginning, planting flags and footprints wasn't enough; the select few would not only need to pilot the complex spacecraft to and from the moon but also be skilled photographers, geologists and scientists. Featuring stunning NASA footage and expert interviews with Apollo space scientists, this inspirational film explores the early days of astronaut training, following those pioneering pilots from selection to the lunar surface and back again. This is the incredible story of how NASA trained America's best pilots to fly to the Moon, and take one giant leap for Mankind.

Fri 28th July

Apollo 17: The Last Men On The Moon

On May 25, 1961, President John F. Kennedy of the United States of America committed the resources of his nation and launched Project Apollo - the greatest technological undertaking in the history of mankind. But in 1972, only two years after Neil Armstrong first walked on the moon, public and political interest in Apollo had dwindled. NASA was forced to cancel their last three missions, making Apollo 17 man's final mission to the moon. Astronauts Eugene Cernan, Harrison Schmitt and Ronald Evans were the three brave men chosen to fly NASA's final mission. They have been written up in history books and acknowledged by the space and scientific communities, but have never received the public recognition they truly deserved. Apollo 17's voyage to the moon was the crowning glory of man's lunar exploration. This documentary features spectacular NASA footage and exclusive interviews with space scientists who worked on the Apollo programme during the 1960s and '70s. This is the remarkable story of the determination and courage of a generation, and a tribute to three brave astronauts and the thousands of men and women behind them during the final days of NASA's Apollo programme.

Fri 28th July

The Universe

Hitch a ride on the journey of a comet as it roars from the cold, dark outer reaches of the solar system to the fiery surface of the sun.

Fri 28th July

Ancient Aliens

In the 21st century, technology is heading in a radical new direction, the merging of man and machine. Smart drugs, nanorobots, and machine-printed organs are just a few of the cutting-edge innovations catalysing the evolution of humankind into an entirely new species. Transhumanists envision a future in which we become cyborgs, achieving far superior intelligence, the ability to survive beyond Earth's atmosphere without a spacesuit, and the possibility of immortality. But might similarly superhuman beings have walked the Earth once before? Beings that our ancestors regarded as gods? Ancient Astronaut theorists say yes, and suggest that we are simply following the course they set us on from the very beginning of mankind, to transcend our flesh and become like our extraterrestrial creators.

Fri 28th July

Time Team

After three days excavating a medieval cathedral under Coventry city centre, Time Team discovers a burial chamber and decides to break their three-day-dig rule and stay on. The excavation reveals a major historical find: the skeleton of one of Coventry's first Priors. The monk was buried before Henry VIII destroyed the cathedral in the 16th century, but modern science reveals that he lived well into middle age.

Fri 28th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Fri 28th July

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Fri 28th July

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Fri 28th July

Noon

The Universe

Hitch a ride on the journey of a comet as it roars from the cold, dark outer reaches of the solar system to the fiery surface of the sun.

Fri 28th July

Defenders Of The Sky: The Airfield

Presenter Jules Hudson takes an exuberant look at the airfields of Great Britain. In each episode Jules will journey to a British airfield and uncover the stories of it's past by talking to aviation experts and people that have worked on the base. Jules also fearlessly takes to the skies to perform some dared evil manoeuvres of his own - with a little help from the professionals. Packed with incredible archive, authentic reconstruction and fascinating characters - Airfields: Defenders of the Sky is the ultimate look at the airfields that help to lead Britain to victory. This isn't a stuffy 'this is history' doc, this is an unashamedly enthusiastic jaunt across the history of our most interesting military airfields. On his journey Jules meets real aviation enthusiasts and people with first hand experience of working out of the base. Stories of wartime activities, spectacular aviation inventions, military battles and daring comradeship drive the narrative of every programme resulting in a compelling account of the integral part these airfields played in our military history. In this series we see Jules parachute RAF style, learn to fly with the Red Arrows, attend Glider Training School, go up in an early hot air balloon and discover the inner workings of a Lancaster Bomber. Incredible archive, authentic reconstruction, engaging characters and stunts where Jules gets hands on with history.

Fri 28th July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Even when there seemed little hope of making an impact against the Germans, the fight for freedom continued. The Polish Jews of the Warsaw Ghetto rose up against their oppressors and although facing the horrors of the Nazi Concentration Camps, German army units were needed to deal with the situation. The French Resistance was also formed, and with the Dambuster Raids attacking the Industrial Ruhr, the Allied progress although still slow, was at least sure.

Fri 28th July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Fri 28th July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Fri 28th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Fri 28th July

Evening

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Fri 28th July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Fri 28th July

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Fri 28th July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Fri 28th July

WW2 From Space

The key editorial feature of the program is an all-seeing CGI eye; a satellite flying above earth, bringing a new visual approach to the biggest conflict of all time. Flying through space and time from above, we'll see these monumental moments in their global context, bringing new information to the forefront and explaining how a nation ranked 19th in the world's militaries in 1939, emerged six years later as the planet's only atomic superpower. Our view from above means we can re-interpret WWII; placing key events in perspective, flying around the world to show the importance of simultaneity, revealing the hidden ripple effects of crucial incidents, and re-creating ground-breaking moments that could never have been captured on camera.

Sat 29th July

Morning

The Missing Evidence

Six captivating unsolved mysteries. New evidence, but will the truth out? Is a bathing circus elephant in the 1930s the true source of the Loch Ness Monster myth? Why did Marilyn Monroe spend her last night arguing with mafia bosses? We explore the mystery, and reach for the answers.

Sat 29th July

Great British Ghosts

Michaela visits the ancient market town of Devizes in Wiltshire, where local traders have been selling their goods every week since the 12th century. Later, she goes on a haunted tour of Devizes itself. But first she visits the Black Swan, an 18th-century coaching inn that was once owned by a notorious highwayman, and his ghost is said to still haunt the cellars. Michaela then goes on a haunted tour of Devizes to learn more about the town's most famous ghosts. They also visit the infamous St Mary's Walk graveyard, where Civil War soldiers who had been buried upright are reported to grab the legs of passers-by.

Sat 29th July

Great British Ghosts

Michaela visits the historic Grenadier, a tiny pub tucked away in the cobbled streets of London's Belgravia which was once used as the officers' mess of a nearby army barracks. It is said to be haunted by the ghost of a young officer who met a sticky end in its cellars. Michaela then follows in the footsteps of the thousands of tourists who go on ghost tours around London every month. Setting off from the historic Smithfield Meat Market in the heart of the old city of London, they first visit the execution site of 'Braveheart' William Wallace, who was "hung, drawn and quarted" in the square facing it.

Sat 29th July

Ancient Aliens: The Ultimate Evidence

Giorgio Tsoukalos decodes some of the most compelling evidence for ancient astronaut theory found in mysterious carvings, symbols, and structures that are strikingly similar on opposite ends of the Earth. Egyptian pyramids aligned with the stars of Orion's belt match up perfectly with pyramidal structures in Central Mexico. A sacred symbol common to India appears carved into the desert floor of Peru. And a modern day crop circle in England is an identical match for a design carved on a stone found just outside Roswell, New Mexico. Is this mere coincidence? Or could the answers to mankind's greatest questions about our origins and our future actually be hidden in plain sight, disguised in the form of alien messages?

Sat 29th July

UFO Hunters

UFO sightings in space are not exclusive to NASA; in fact, the Soviet space program has its share of sightings as well. Watch as the team analyses incredible NASA footage of reported UFOs and alien presence. Listen to interviews with the experts, including Apollo astronaut, Edgar Mitchell, and former NASA contractor, Donna Hare, who witnessed NASA employee's air brushing UFOs out of space photos. Included are the Russian MIR footage, Gemini 11 photos, various audio transmissions between astronauts and Mission Control, and the woman who took NASA to court over the alleged 1965 UFO crash in Kecksburg, Pennsylvania.

Sat 29th July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Sat 29th July

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Sat 29th July

Hitler V Churchill: The Eagle & The Lion

Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler: the 'old lion' against the 'German eagle'. The 'bear of Downing Street' versus 'der Wolf'. Two radically contradictory personalities whose enmity represented the 20th-century.

Sat 29th July

WW2 From Space

The key editorial feature of the program is an all-seeing CGI eye; a satellite flying above earth, bringing a new visual approach to the biggest conflict of all time. Flying through space and time from above, we'll see these monumental moments in their global context, bringing new information to the forefront and explaining how a nation ranked 19th in the world's militaries in 1939, emerged six years later as the planet's only atomic superpower. Our view from above means we can re-interpret WWII; placing key events in perspective, flying around the world to show the importance of simultaneity, revealing the hidden ripple effects of crucial incidents, and re-creating ground-breaking moments that could never have been captured on camera.

Sat 29th July

Time Team

The team rubs shoulders with royalty visiting Basing House in Hampshire. It was once one of grandest homes in Tudor England and a haunt of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I until it was destroyed during the Civil War.

Sat 29th July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Sat 29th July

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Sat 29th July

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Sat 29th July

Noon

Britain's Bloody Crown

Six hundred years ago England was torn apart by a series of bloody battles for the throne. England's most powerful families went to war against each other in a violent and deadly blood feud. This is the real life Game of Thrones. Tens of thousands were slaughtered. In just thirty years the crown changed hands seven times. It's known as the Wars of the Roses. Across four episodes, acclaimed historian Dan Jones' unique storytelling is combined with high-end scripted drama to reveal the true story of the Wars of the Roses. And the tale he tells is not the one you'll find in the history books. It's a story of human frailties, rivalries, forced hands and blind luck that drove England into decades of violence. Each episode focuses on pivotal characters and the moments in their lives when the world shook and history changed forever.

Sat 29th July

Secrets of Great British Castles

This time, Dan Jones is in the heart of Wales. Exploring a stronghold that was built not just as an impenetrable fortress but also as a lavish fairy-tale home: Cardiff Castle. Cardiff Castle is a truly remarkable site with a history that spans over 2000 years. Roman soldiers slept here, noble knights held court here, and the Bute family, one of the world's richest, transformed the castle into a romantic Victorian fantasy. The castle also provided shelter for more than 1800 people during WWII in the castle's air raid tunnels. Dan discovers that one of William the Conqueror's eldest son was imprisoned here, Robert Curthose. In 1106, Henry I gave the castle to his illegitimate son, Robert of Gloucester. After a failed attempt by William the Conqueror's eldest son to take England from Henry I, William's son was imprisoned in the castle until his death in 1134. In 1314, the castle was given to Hugh Despenser the Younger, the controversial favourite of Edward II. Harsh governance by the Despensers encouraged a Welsh rebellion under Llywelyn Bren. In 1315, Bren attacked the castle. In 1318, Bren was crushed and hung, drawn and quartered on Despensers' orders. Dan meets Dr Mary Lewis from Reading University who shows Dan the bones of someone who had suffered the same grisly death. Dr Mary Lewis believes these bones to be those of Hugh Depenser the Younger. Cardiff Castle was besieged many times during the English Civil War. Dan meets a weapons expert who shows him how gunpowder challenged Cardiff Castles defences. Dan learns how to load and fire a musket. The Bute family brought power and prosperity to Cardiff, which they turned from a sleepy backwater into one of the greatest coal exporting ports in the world. They transformed the castle into the gothic fantasy we see today.

Sat 29th July

King Alfred and the Anglo Saxons

Alfred's grandson Aethelstan fulfils the family plan and creates a kingdom of all England. Travelling from Devon to Cumbria, Scotland and Rome, Michael Wood tells the tale of Aethelstan's wars, his learning and his law-making. The film shows how he created a national coinage and traces the origin of the English Parliament to the king's new assembly politics. But there's also a dark side, with later legends that the king had his brother drowned at sea. In his last desperate struggle, Aethelstan defeated a huge invasion of Vikings and Scots in what became known as the Anglo-Saxon Great War. Michael Wood argues, Aethelstan was one of the greatest English monarchs, and with his grandfather Alfred, his father Edward and his aunt Aethelflaed, a member of our most remarkable royal family, and "even more than the Tudors, the most gifted and influential rulers in British history".

Sat 29th July

Inside The Tower Of London

The Tower of London, for almost 1000 years at the heart of state life in the UK, is one of the most famous buildings in the world. Constructed soon after the Norman conquest of Britain in 1066, it has served as a Royal Palace, fortress, prison, place of execution for queens, an edifice to scare the population, royal zoo, mint and keeper of the Crown Jewels. Yet few know its full story. In this series, aided by historian Stephen Porter of King's College, University of London, and author of The Biography of the Tower of London, and including some beautiful re-enactments, we hear some startling stories and terrifying tales.

Sat 29th July

The Quizeum

The quiz show that celebrates unique and fascinating museums around the country. Every episode is set in a different museum, where a team of expert panellists pit their knowledgeable wits against each other.

Sat 29th July

The World From Above

A breathtaking series of aerial programs offering an entirely different view of the world. From 10,000 feet down to just a few feet above ground, discover new perspectives through thrilling journeys, from mountains and great cities to fantastic castles and the great natural wonders of the globe. This series travels everywhere from Spain to South Africa, from the north of Iceland to North Carolina in the USA.

Sat 29th July

Britain's Ancient Tracks

Britain is criss-crossed by a network of ancient track ways that have been travelled for over 5000 years. Tony Robinson explores the mysteries and legends of these remarkable routes.

Sat 29th July

Evening

Building Australia

John Doyle tells the story of the optimism and confidence that powered the movement to make Australia an independent nation. This national idealism was reflected in the architecture of the Federation house.

Sat 29th July

Legendary Hotels

Architecture and design meet historical events and celebrities. Explore the luxury, location and comfort of eight hotels, looking at their culture, art, history, glamour and mystery.

Sat 29th July

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes investigates the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. Born to an affluent Prussian family, Marx became an angry, idealistic radical, constantly on the run for his political agitating and incendiary writing. In Paris, he first formulated his explosive analysis of capitalism and its corrosive effects on human nature. In Brussels, he co-authored the Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels. Drawing on expert opinion and new evidence, Bettany reveals the flesh-and-blood man and his groundbreaking ideas.

Sat 29th July

Gore Vidal: United States of Amnesia

No twentieth-century figure has had a more profound effect on the worlds of literature, film, politics, historical debate, and the culture wars than Gore Vidal. Anchored by intimate one-on-one interviews with the man himself, Nicholas Wrathall's documentary is a fascinating and wholly entertaining portrait of the last lion of the age of American liberalism. Commentary by those who knew him best, including filmmaker/nephew Burr Steers and the late Christopher Hitchens blends with footage from Vidal's legendary on-air career to remind us why he will forever stand as one of the most brilliant and fearless critics of our time. Gore Vidal's professional life spans more than 50 years of American politics and letters. His return to America in 2005 marked the last great stage in his creative career and this film represents an extraordinary opportunity to share his view on America in the twenty-first century. Featuring candid verite footage of Vidal in his final years, the film explores his enduring global impact on art, politics, and everything in between. His overview of the current state of the Republic and the health of US democracy is unique and incisive. This is Gore Vidal's last word and testimony.

Sat 29th July

Inquisition

England has a rich and bloody history when it comes to religious persecution. The religious persecutions started when Henry Vlll split with Rome in 1534 and started his own Church of England with the King being its head. Suddenly, Catholics were persona non grata and arrested in large numbers, suspected of being behind 'papist plots' to bring down King Henry. In a reversal of fortune, his daughter, Mary I was motivated by a religious zeal to purge this new heresy from her land, and during her short reign from 1553 to 1558 about 290 Protestants had been burned at the stake for heresy. Then later, in another turnaround, Queen Elizabeth 1, hunted down Catholics once more, rounded them up and executed hundreds for secretly practicing their faith. In 1570, Pope Pius V had issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis, which absolved Catholics from their obligations to the Government. In the end, more than 3000 Roman Catholics were put to death by English governments between 1535 and 1681 for treason.

Sat 29th July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 30th July

Morning

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Sun 30th July

Hangar 1: The UFO Files

MUFON investigations within Hangar 1 have turned up evidence of amazing otherworldly technological powers, like tractor beams, teleportation, and invisibility. Witnesses who have encountered UFOs have also experienced physiological aftereffects, including x-ray vision and telepathy. What is the connection behind these seemingly supernatural displays of power?

Sun 30th July

Ancient Aliens

In the 21st century, technology is heading in a radical new direction, the merging of man and machine. Smart drugs, nanorobots, and machine-printed organs are just a few of the cutting-edge innovations catalysing the evolution of humankind into an entirely new species. Transhumanists envision a future in which we become cyborgs, achieving far superior intelligence, the ability to survive beyond Earth's atmosphere without a spacesuit, and the possibility of immortality. But might similarly superhuman beings have walked the Earth once before? Beings that our ancestors regarded as gods? Ancient Astronaut theorists say yes, and suggest that we are simply following the course they set us on from the very beginning of mankind, to transcend our flesh and become like our extraterrestrial creators.

Sun 30th July

UFO Hunters

In May of 2008, the UK's Ministry of Defence made decades' worth of classified files on UFOs freely available to the public. One month later, UFO hysteria ripped through the country. In June, a police helicopter crew spotted unusual aircraft in Wales. South Wales police confirmed the sighting and reported it to the Ministry of Defence. Numerous witnesses and videos poured into Britain's top newspapers of more sightings - UFO madness had come to the UK. Former MOD investigator Nick Pope joins the team in solving the most exciting and recent UFO sightings in the world.

Sun 30th July

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes investigates the revolutionary ideas of Karl Marx. Born to an affluent Prussian family, Marx became an angry, idealistic radical, constantly on the run for his political agitating and incendiary writing. In Paris, he first formulated his explosive analysis of capitalism and its corrosive effects on human nature. In Brussels, he co-authored the Communist Manifesto with Frederick Engels. Drawing on expert opinion and new evidence, Bettany reveals the flesh-and-blood man and his groundbreaking ideas.

Sun 30th July

Gore Vidal: United States of Amnesia

No twentieth-century figure has had a more profound effect on the worlds of literature, film, politics, historical debate, and the culture wars than Gore Vidal. Anchored by intimate one-on-one interviews with the man himself, Nicholas Wrathall's documentary is a fascinating and wholly entertaining portrait of the last lion of the age of American liberalism. Commentary by those who knew him best, including filmmaker/nephew Burr Steers and the late Christopher Hitchens blends with footage from Vidal's legendary on-air career to remind us why he will forever stand as one of the most brilliant and fearless critics of our time. Gore Vidal's professional life spans more than 50 years of American politics and letters. His return to America in 2005 marked the last great stage in his creative career and this film represents an extraordinary opportunity to share his view on America in the twenty-first century. Featuring candid verite footage of Vidal in his final years, the film explores his enduring global impact on art, politics, and everything in between. His overview of the current state of the Republic and the health of US democracy is unique and incisive. This is Gore Vidal's last word and testimony.

Sun 30th July

Inquisition

England has a rich and bloody history when it comes to religious persecution. The religious persecutions started when Henry Vlll split with Rome in 1534 and started his own Church of England with the King being its head. Suddenly, Catholics were persona non grata and arrested in large numbers, suspected of being behind 'papist plots' to bring down King Henry. In a reversal of fortune, his daughter, Mary I was motivated by a religious zeal to purge this new heresy from her land, and during her short reign from 1553 to 1558 about 290 Protestants had been burned at the stake for heresy. Then later, in another turnaround, Queen Elizabeth 1, hunted down Catholics once more, rounded them up and executed hundreds for secretly practicing their faith. In 1570, Pope Pius V had issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis, which absolved Catholics from their obligations to the Government. In the end, more than 3000 Roman Catholics were put to death by English governments between 1535 and 1681 for treason.

Sun 30th July

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 30th July

Time Team

The Team travel back to the Bronze Age to Flag Fen in Cambridgeshire. The fenland bog is home to one of the most important archaeological wet-sites in the country, where the soggy conditions help preserve 3000-year-old timbers buried in the peat.

Sun 30th July

Gore Vidal: United States of Amnesia

No twentieth-century figure has had a more profound effect on the worlds of literature, film, politics, historical debate, and the culture wars than Gore Vidal. Anchored by intimate one-on-one interviews with the man himself, Nicholas Wrathall's documentary is a fascinating and wholly entertaining portrait of the last lion of the age of American liberalism. Commentary by those who knew him best, including filmmaker/nephew Burr Steers and the late Christopher Hitchens blends with footage from Vidal's legendary on-air career to remind us why he will forever stand as one of the most brilliant and fearless critics of our time. Gore Vidal's professional life spans more than 50 years of American politics and letters. His return to America in 2005 marked the last great stage in his creative career and this film represents an extraordinary opportunity to share his view on America in the twenty-first century. Featuring candid verite footage of Vidal in his final years, the film explores his enduring global impact on art, politics, and everything in between. His overview of the current state of the Republic and the health of US democracy is unique and incisive. This is Gore Vidal's last word and testimony.

Sun 30th July

Inquisition

England has a rich and bloody history when it comes to religious persecution. The religious persecutions started when Henry Vlll split with Rome in 1534 and started his own Church of England with the King being its head. Suddenly, Catholics were persona non grata and arrested in large numbers, suspected of being behind 'papist plots' to bring down King Henry. In a reversal of fortune, his daughter, Mary I was motivated by a religious zeal to purge this new heresy from her land, and during her short reign from 1553 to 1558 about 290 Protestants had been burned at the stake for heresy. Then later, in another turnaround, Queen Elizabeth 1, hunted down Catholics once more, rounded them up and executed hundreds for secretly practicing their faith. In 1570, Pope Pius V had issued the bull Regnans in Excelsis, which absolved Catholics from their obligations to the Government. In the end, more than 3000 Roman Catholics were put to death by English governments between 1535 and 1681 for treason.

Sun 30th July

Noon

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Sun 30th July

Secrets of Great British Castles

This episode, Dan Jones is exploring the medieval capital of the north: York. Built by William the Conqueror, York Castle was once the regional seat of the British government and was used as a prison and a royal mint.

Sun 30th July

Merlin: The Legend

Mythical hero and historical mystery; hermit and fierce warrior; wise man and madman; the antichrist and the fighter of evil; Christian and pagan; magician and scientist; protector and traitor; politician and poet. Merlin continues to be many things to many people. But one thing is certain; his cultural influence has been vast. Not only in his native Wales and the British Isles but also throughout the world. Without him, Gandalf and Dumbledore would be unimaginable. Throughout history he has been a mythical hero with a deep capacity for meeting political and artistic needs, appealing to kings and dictators, poets and painters. A complex and fertile figure, he can be re-invented at will and throughout history he has reappeared at times of adversity or challenging change. He represents the duality of our nature and is our link with nature and the past, a past we have long forgotten but which lies just beneath the surface and which is part of all of us. From Taliesin to Twain, C. S. Lewis to Harry Potter, Tennyson to Peter Jackson- across the centuries, this mysterious figure has influenced poetry, prose, music, the visual arts, film and television. In addition to these influences, we look at how the perception of Merlin has changed over the centuries, changes driven by the needs of the age. It's quite a journey. The invading Normans and the Tudor monarchs all use him to legitimise their story and build up the state. In the eighteenth century, he anchors Britain in ancient times just when it's booming commercially. For the Victorian writers and painters, weighed down by industry and public sobriety, he represents the soul of the artist.

Sun 30th July

Great Continental Railway Journeys

Michael Portillo embarks on a nostalgic railway adventure, which takes him across the heart of Europe.

Sun 30th July

Penelope Keith's Favourite Villages

Penelope Keith, a proud villager for 40 years, looks back at the hidden villages she has visited across Britain and puts together a selection of her favourites.

Sun 30th July

King Arthur: The Legend

A celebration of the power of a great myth, from its magical Celtic origins to global popularity today. Across the centuries, the tales of King Arthur have gripped the popular imagination. Rich with dramatic reconstructions and lavish photography of ancient heritage sites and mystic Celtic landscapes, this thrilling program reveals how the stories of King Arthur have grown and developed across 1000 years and more. The legend is alive and well, on screen and in print, intriguing a new generation who are in search of an inspiring hero figure and a Camelot for their own age.

Sun 30th July

Evening

Building Australia

John Doyle explains how factory built houses and project homes met an intense demand for housing and, reflected both the taste for 'modernity' and the preferences of the 'New Australians' who moved into the suburbs.

Sun 30th July

Dan Snow's Norman Walks

Dan Snow uncovers the forgotten Norman Empire, one that has been largely overlooked, yet laid the foundation for modern Britain.

Sun 30th July

1945: The Savage Peace

"Enjoy the war, for the peace will be savage", was apparently a macabre joke circulating in the German military towards the end of World War II. This documentary shows us just how prescient it would prove, charting the cruelties that would follow the end of conflict. Man's inhumanity to man would continue long after the war itself had formally ended.

Sun 30th July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. Counting down from 62 to 50 we list scientists, revolutionaries, Generals... and even "The King". But Elvis Presley isn't the only surprise in this episode as he stands shoulder to shoulder with Amelia Earhart, Edwin Hubble and more. This episode touches on some issues which remain vital today and choices that changed the world and the way we live.

Sun 30th July

The Man Who Killed Richard III

This is a story of conspiracy and betrayal, of a lust for power and a lost allegiance; the story of the man who killed King Richard III. In this documentary we set out to prove that the Welshman Sir Rhys ap Thomas, master of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, killed King Richard III, changing the course of British history. Sir Rhys ap Thomas had sworn allegiance to King Richard III. He had accumulated lands and status in Wales that were dependent, in part, on his loyalty to Richard. But at the Battle of Bosworth he betrayed him, fighting on the side of Henry Tudor. He dealt the fatal blow to Richard III. We uncover what drove Rhys ap Thomas to betray not only his master but a King - and we reveal his remarkable story; from a childhood embroiled in the War of the Roses and exile to the continent, to a determined and ambitious man who brought an abrupt end to the Plantagenet line, carving the way for his own rise to power at the heart of the Tudor dynasty.

Sun 30th July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Sun 30th July

History of Warfare

"We come to avenge our wrongs and to set our country free." - William Wallace. This is the dramatic story of the great Scots' triumph over the English, which took place at Stirling Bridge on September 11, 1297. Their momentous victory there confirmed the reputation of William Wallace and made him a national hero; his name has loomed large in the pages of Scottish history ever since. After the short but brutal battle, the English were driven from the land, leaving Edward the First swearing terrible revenge. This atmospheric and action-packed film features battle reconstructions and location footage plus analysis by leading military authorities and historians.

Mon 31st July

Morning

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Mon 31st July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

From their success in North Africa, the Allies were ready to return to occupied Europe, first landing on Sicily before moving north onto mainland Italy under the command of Montgomery, known fondly to his men as Monty. But as the Italians surrendered, the Germans occupied Rome, making the battle for Italy a long, hard slog, while the plans for the invasion of northern France steadily took shape.

Mon 31st July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Mon 31st July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Mon 31st July

1945: The Savage Peace

"Enjoy the war, for the peace will be savage", was apparently a macabre joke circulating in the German military towards the end of World War II. This documentary shows us just how prescient it would prove, charting the cruelties that would follow the end of conflict. Man's inhumanity to man would continue long after the war itself had formally ended.

Mon 31st July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. Counting down from 62 to 50 we list scientists, revolutionaries, Generals... and even "The King". But Elvis Presley isn't the only surprise in this episode as he stands shoulder to shoulder with Amelia Earhart, Edwin Hubble and more. This episode touches on some issues which remain vital today and choices that changed the world and the way we live.

Mon 31st July

The Man Who Killed Richard III

This is a story of conspiracy and betrayal, of a lust for power and a lost allegiance; the story of the man who killed King Richard III. In this documentary we set out to prove that the Welshman Sir Rhys ap Thomas, master of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, killed King Richard III, changing the course of British history. Sir Rhys ap Thomas had sworn allegiance to King Richard III. He had accumulated lands and status in Wales that were dependent, in part, on his loyalty to Richard. But at the Battle of Bosworth he betrayed him, fighting on the side of Henry Tudor. He dealt the fatal blow to Richard III. We uncover what drove Rhys ap Thomas to betray not only his master but a King - and we reveal his remarkable story; from a childhood embroiled in the War of the Roses and exile to the continent, to a determined and ambitious man who brought an abrupt end to the Plantagenet line, carving the way for his own rise to power at the heart of the Tudor dynasty.

Mon 31st July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 31st July

History of Warfare

"We come to avenge our wrongs and to set our country free." - William Wallace. This is the dramatic story of the great Scots' triumph over the English, which took place at Stirling Bridge on September 11, 1297. Their momentous victory there confirmed the reputation of William Wallace and made him a national hero; his name has loomed large in the pages of Scottish history ever since. After the short but brutal battle, the English were driven from the land, leaving Edward the First swearing terrible revenge. This atmospheric and action-packed film features battle reconstructions and location footage plus analysis by leading military authorities and historians.

Mon 31st July

Time Team

Time Team head for Herefordshire in search of the Royal palace of the great Anglo-Saxon leader, King Offa, who ruled the kingdom of Mercia from 757 to 796. Records show that Offa had a grand palace in the area but its exact location has never been discovered.

Mon 31st July

1945: The Savage Peace

"Enjoy the war, for the peace will be savage", was apparently a macabre joke circulating in the German military towards the end of World War II. This documentary shows us just how prescient it would prove, charting the cruelties that would follow the end of conflict. Man's inhumanity to man would continue long after the war itself had formally ended.

Mon 31st July

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. Counting down from 62 to 50 we list scientists, revolutionaries, Generals... and even "The King". But Elvis Presley isn't the only surprise in this episode as he stands shoulder to shoulder with Amelia Earhart, Edwin Hubble and more. This episode touches on some issues which remain vital today and choices that changed the world and the way we live.

Mon 31st July

The Man Who Killed Richard III

This is a story of conspiracy and betrayal, of a lust for power and a lost allegiance; the story of the man who killed King Richard III. In this documentary we set out to prove that the Welshman Sir Rhys ap Thomas, master of Carew Castle in Pembrokeshire, killed King Richard III, changing the course of British history. Sir Rhys ap Thomas had sworn allegiance to King Richard III. He had accumulated lands and status in Wales that were dependent, in part, on his loyalty to Richard. But at the Battle of Bosworth he betrayed him, fighting on the side of Henry Tudor. He dealt the fatal blow to Richard III. We uncover what drove Rhys ap Thomas to betray not only his master but a King - and we reveal his remarkable story; from a childhood embroiled in the War of the Roses and exile to the continent, to a determined and ambitious man who brought an abrupt end to the Plantagenet line, carving the way for his own rise to power at the heart of the Tudor dynasty.

Mon 31st July

Noon

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 31st July

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Mon 31st July

WWII: Countdown to Victory

From their success in North Africa, the Allies were ready to return to occupied Europe, first landing on Sicily before moving north onto mainland Italy under the command of Montgomery, known fondly to his men as Monty. But as the Italians surrendered, the Germans occupied Rome, making the battle for Italy a long, hard slog, while the plans for the invasion of northern France steadily took shape.

Mon 31st July

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Mon 31st July

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Mon 31st July

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Mon 31st July

Evening

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Mon 31st July

Hidden Britain By Drone

Sir Tony Robinson uses drones to reveal Britain's hidden places, from billionaires' private estates to forbidden military zones.

Mon 31st July

China: Treasures of the Jade Empire

Explore the tombs of China's Han Dynasty, where the founders of the famous Silk Road and seekers of immortality were laid to rest. Within lie opulent artworks including terracotta armies, excavated to reveal their story.

Mon 31st July

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Mon 31st July

The Great Underground War

This fascinating series unearths the untold story about how the Great War went underground; the tales of tunnellers and miners who dug under the enemy when there was no other choice but to attack from beneath. Five legendary battles. Five tales of human sacrifice and tenacity. Five bloody battles that involved men from all over the world.

Mon 31st July

Clash of Warriors

Almost two years after the invasion of Burma, the Allies at last believed they could fight the Japanese. The taking of the key airfield at Myitkyina in May 1944 would prove a vital test of Allied confidence in defeating a formidable enemy in dense jungle terrain. Capturing the airfield brought together two determined and ruthless commanders, General Joseph 'Vinegar Joe' Stilwell and Lt General Masaki Honda, in an uncompromising face off.

Tue 1st August

Morning

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Tue 1st August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Churchill and Roosevelt had always been comfortable working together and Stalin was more of a foe than a friend. With the invasion of France imminent, the Tehran Conference was a minefield of diplomatic negotiations.

Tue 1st August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Tue 1st August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Tue 1st August

Hidden Britain By Drone

Sir Tony Robinson uses drones to reveal Britain's hidden places, from billionaires' private estates to forbidden military zones.

Tue 1st August

China: Treasures of the Jade Empire

Explore the tombs of China's Han Dynasty, where the founders of the famous Silk Road and seekers of immortality were laid to rest. Within lie opulent artworks including terracotta armies, excavated to reveal their story.

Tue 1st August

Chris Tarrant's Extreme Railways

TV presenter Chris Tarrant travels around the world to ride some of the most extreme railways that wind their way through some of the harshest terrain on Earth.

Tue 1st August

The Great Underground War

This fascinating series unearths the untold story about how the Great War went underground; the tales of tunnellers and miners who dug under the enemy when there was no other choice but to attack from beneath. Five legendary battles. Five tales of human sacrifice and tenacity. Five bloody battles that involved men from all over the world.

Tue 1st August

Clash of Warriors

Almost two years after the invasion of Burma, the Allies at last believed they could fight the Japanese. The taking of the key airfield at Myitkyina in May 1944 would prove a vital test of Allied confidence in defeating a formidable enemy in dense jungle terrain. Capturing the airfield brought together two determined and ruthless commanders, General Joseph 'Vinegar Joe' Stilwell and Lt General Masaki Honda, in an uncompromising face off.

Tue 1st August

Time Team

Tony Robinson and the Team are in Greenwich Park at the invitation of the Museum of London. The discovery of a rare inscribed Roman stone, a tile bearing the letters PPBR and new evidence on the position of the famous Roman road, Watling Street, have the experts jumping up and down with excitement.

Tue 1st August

The Dark Ages: An Age of Light

The Dark Ages have been misunderstood. History has identified the period following the fall of the Roman Empire with a descent into barbarism - a terrible time when civilisation stopped. In this landmark series, Waldemar argues that the Dark Ages were a time of great artistic achievement, with new ideas and religions provoking new artistic adventures. He embarks on a fascinating trip across Europe, Africa and Asia, visits the world's most famous collections and discovers hidden artistic gems, all to prove that the Dark Ages were actually an 'Age of Light'.

Tue 1st August

Medieval Lives: Birth, Marriage, Death

Historian and author Helen Castor, presenter of the popular series She-Wolves, explores how the people of the Middle Ages handled the most fundamental moments of transition in life: birth, marriage and death. In doing so she reveals how people in the medieval world thought and what they believed in. For the people of the Middle Ages the teachings of the Catholic Church shaped thoughts and beliefs across the whole of Western Europe. But by the end of the Middle Ages the Church would find itself in the grip of momentous change and the way of medieval birth, marriage and death would never be quite the same again.

Tue 1st August

Hidden Britain By Drone

Sir Tony Robinson uses drones to reveal Britain's hidden places, from billionaires' private estates to forbidden military zones.

Tue 1st August

Noon

China: Treasures of the Jade Empire

Explore the tombs of China's Han Dynasty, where the founders of the famous Silk Road and seekers of immortality were laid to rest. Within lie opulent artworks including terracotta armies, excavated to reveal their story.

Tue 1st August

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Tue 1st August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

Churchill and Roosevelt had always been comfortable working together and Stalin was more of a foe than a friend. With the invasion of France imminent, the Tehran Conference was a minefield of diplomatic negotiations.

Tue 1st August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Tue 1st August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Tue 1st August

History's Greatest Hoaxes

In the 1980s, one of the most extraordinary discoveries of the 20th-century was made - the personal diary of none other than Adolf Hitler. It caused a sensation. The German magazine De Stern picked up the serialisation rights for a cool $6 million in their own country; the Sunday Times grabbed them eagerly in the UK. A pity then that they turned out to be the work of notorious Konrad Kujua, a Stuttgart forger with an uncanny ability to copy the Fuhrer's handwriting. Cue copious amounts of egg on face. This is the whole story of the hoax, the people behind it and the way it was exposed. In addition, it provides a chilling insight into the burgeoning market for Nazi memorabilia at the time and how men like Kujua went to extraordinary lengths to satisfy the worldwide demand.

Tue 1st August

Evening

Treasures Decoded

Using forensic testing and experimental archaeology, the series unlocks secrets that have remained hidden for centuries. It sheds new light on moments in history that have long been shrouded in myth-making and controversy. Is the golden raft found in a remote Columbian cave the key to a legendary city of gold? Is the Turin Shroud the world's oldest photograph? Do we have the first piece of ancient scripture to mention a sexual relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene? Can we finally say whose face adorns the great Sphinx? This series takes viewers on a riveting journey of discovery and revelation.

Tue 1st August

The Weapon Hunter

Meet Paul Shull, rock 'n' roll promoter and expert swordsman. Backed by a crack team of experts with years of experience in tracking down the finest military specimens, he's in pursuit of North America's most collectable artefacts. He's hellbent on finding them and telling their remarkable stories.

Tue 1st August

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Tue 1st August

Hitler's Olympics

August 2016 marks the 80th anniversary of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games hosted by Adolf Hitler. Explore the extraordinary moment in the history of the Olympics and the growing power of the Nazi Party. Featuring Captain Eric 'Winkle Brown', now 97, as he recalls visiting the games and his role in the war. Leading nations planned a boycott and Jesse Owens stole the show but these were just brief distractions for the Nazi PR machine, as the foreign press praised Germany's spirit following the depression. Compelling, frightening and relevant today.

Tue 1st August

Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies

We take viewers inside one of the most extraordinary code-breaking feats in history. In 1943, the "Venona" project found a chink in the supposedly unbreakable code used by the Soviet Union and exposed a vast network of spies operating in the United States, including highly placed agents at the ultra-secret atomic bomb project. Among the key atom spies revealed by "Venona" was scientist Ted Hall, who was never prosecuted and was only recently publicly implicated.

Tue 1st August

The War

Spring 1945: In the Pacific, Americans are fighting on the island of Okinawa, the gateway to Japan, while kamikaze pilots wreak havoc on the fleet offshore. Meanwhile, in Europe, allied forces rapidly push across Germany from the East and West, and American and British troops discover the true horrors of the Nazi's industrialised barbarism at Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen and hundreds of other concentration camps. Finally, on May 8, with their country in ruins and their Fuhrer dead by his own hand, the Germans surrender. This series, directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, tells the story of the Second World War through the personal accounts of a handful of men and women from four quintessentially American towns. The series explores the most intimate human dimensions of the greatest cataclysm in history, a worldwide catastrophe that touched the lives of every family on every street in every town in America and demonstrates that in extraordinary times, there are no ordinary lives. Throughout the series, the indelible experience of combat is brought vividly to life as veterans describe what it was like to fight and kill and see men die at places like Monte Cassino and Anzio and Omaha Beach; the Hurtgen Forest and the Vosges Mountains and the Ardennes; and on the other side of the world at Guadalcanal and Tarawa and Saipan; Peleliu and the Philippine Sea and Okinawa. In all of the battle scenes, dramatic historical footage and photographs are combined with extraordinarily realistic sound effects to give the film a terrifying, visceral immediacy. The film honours the bravery, endurance and sacrifice of the generation of Americans who lived through what will always be known simply as The War.

Wed 2nd August

Morning

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Wed 2nd August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

As winter gave way to spring, the world watched and waited as the Allied forces prepared for Operation Overlord. Brave and daring, risking all, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower took charge of the campaign to deliver the fight for freedom directly to Adolf Hitler.

Wed 2nd August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Wed 2nd August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Wed 2nd August

The Weapon Hunter

Meet Paul Shull, rock 'n' roll promoter and expert swordsman. Backed by a crack team of experts with years of experience in tracking down the finest military specimens, he's in pursuit of North America's most collectable artefacts. He's hellbent on finding them and telling their remarkable stories.

Wed 2nd August

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Wed 2nd August

Hitler's Olympics

August 2016 marks the 80th anniversary of the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games hosted by Adolf Hitler. Explore the extraordinary moment in the history of the Olympics and the growing power of the Nazi Party. Featuring Captain Eric 'Winkle Brown', now 97, as he recalls visiting the games and his role in the war. Leading nations planned a boycott and Jesse Owens stole the show but these were just brief distractions for the Nazi PR machine, as the foreign press praised Germany's spirit following the depression. Compelling, frightening and relevant today.

Wed 2nd August

Secrets, Lies and Atomic Spies

We take viewers inside one of the most extraordinary code-breaking feats in history. In 1943, the "Venona" project found a chink in the supposedly unbreakable code used by the Soviet Union and exposed a vast network of spies operating in the United States, including highly placed agents at the ultra-secret atomic bomb project. Among the key atom spies revealed by "Venona" was scientist Ted Hall, who was never prosecuted and was only recently publicly implicated.

Wed 2nd August

The War

Spring 1945: In the Pacific, Americans are fighting on the island of Okinawa, the gateway to Japan, while kamikaze pilots wreak havoc on the fleet offshore. Meanwhile, in Europe, allied forces rapidly push across Germany from the East and West, and American and British troops discover the true horrors of the Nazi's industrialised barbarism at Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen and hundreds of other concentration camps. Finally, on May 8, with their country in ruins and their Fuhrer dead by his own hand, the Germans surrender. This series, directed and produced by Ken Burns and Lynn Novick, tells the story of the Second World War through the personal accounts of a handful of men and women from four quintessentially American towns. The series explores the most intimate human dimensions of the greatest cataclysm in history, a worldwide catastrophe that touched the lives of every family on every street in every town in America and demonstrates that in extraordinary times, there are no ordinary lives. Throughout the series, the indelible experience of combat is brought vividly to life as veterans describe what it was like to fight and kill and see men die at places like Monte Cassino and Anzio and Omaha Beach; the Hurtgen Forest and the Vosges Mountains and the Ardennes; and on the other side of the world at Guadalcanal and Tarawa and Saipan; Peleliu and the Philippine Sea and Okinawa. In all of the battle scenes, dramatic historical footage and photographs are combined with extraordinarily realistic sound effects to give the film a terrifying, visceral immediacy. The film honours the bravery, endurance and sacrifice of the generation of Americans who lived through what will always be known simply as The War.

Wed 2nd August

Time Team

The Team search for a lost Anglo-Saxon monastery on the rain and wind-swept Headland at Hartlepool in Northumberland. Twelve hundred years ago a thriving community of monks and nuns, presided over by Saint Hilda, were trying to convert the pagans to Christianity. But the monastery disappeared after 200 years and lay forgotten until workmen unearthed human bones and grave markers in 1833. Now the Team has just three days to find the exact location of the monastery and perhaps the remains of some of St Hilda's followers.

Wed 2nd August

History's Greatest Hoaxes

In the 1980s, one of the most extraordinary discoveries of the 20th-century was made - the personal diary of none other than Adolf Hitler. It caused a sensation. The German magazine De Stern picked up the serialisation rights for a cool $6 million in their own country; the Sunday Times grabbed them eagerly in the UK. A pity then that they turned out to be the work of notorious Konrad Kujua, a Stuttgart forger with an uncanny ability to copy the Fuhrer's handwriting. Cue copious amounts of egg on face. This is the whole story of the hoax, the people behind it and the way it was exposed. In addition, it provides a chilling insight into the burgeoning market for Nazi memorabilia at the time and how men like Kujua went to extraordinary lengths to satisfy the worldwide demand.

Wed 2nd August

Treasures Decoded

Using forensic testing and experimental archaeology, the series unlocks secrets that have remained hidden for centuries. It sheds new light on moments in history that have long been shrouded in myth-making and controversy. Is the golden raft found in a remote Columbian cave the key to a legendary city of gold? Is the Turin Shroud the world's oldest photograph? Do we have the first piece of ancient scripture to mention a sexual relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene? Can we finally say whose face adorns the great Sphinx? This series takes viewers on a riveting journey of discovery and revelation.

Wed 2nd August

The Weapon Hunter

Meet Paul Shull, rock 'n' roll promoter and expert swordsman. Backed by a crack team of experts with years of experience in tracking down the finest military specimens, he's in pursuit of North America's most collectable artefacts. He's hellbent on finding them and telling their remarkable stories.

Wed 2nd August

Noon

Top Ten Warfare

This is the story of warfare in the modern age. From the legendary Spitfire to the stealth bombers of the second Iraq conflict, see stories from the conflicts of the 20th- and 21st-century, ranked by the impact they have had.

Wed 2nd August

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Wed 2nd August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

As winter gave way to spring, the world watched and waited as the Allied forces prepared for Operation Overlord. Brave and daring, risking all, US General Dwight D. Eisenhower took charge of the campaign to deliver the fight for freedom directly to Adolf Hitler.

Wed 2nd August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Wed 2nd August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Wed 2nd August

History's Greatest Hoaxes

The endless quest to conclusively connect man with the ape seemed to have come to an end in the year 1912 with the discovery of a skull and jawbone in a quarry near the small village of Piltdown in Sussex. The scientific and academic world went into a frenzy. It was not until 1953 that they were proved to a cleverly aged human skull, the jawbone of an orangutan, and the teeth of a chimpanzee. The quest to uncover the identity of the hoaxer who fooled some very clever people for 40 years is told in this episode, as is the theory that it was a practical joke that actually set the study of human evolution back many years and had a lasting, damaging effect on our understanding of the subject.

Wed 2nd August

Evening

Inside: Lebanon Hostage Crisis

Every 20 minutes someone in the world is kidnapped. This film goes inside the shadowy world of hostages with journalist Terry Anderson who was held for seven years - longer than any Western hostage in history. On the 20th anniversary of his release, Anderson shares his gripping story in an exclusive interview that reveals the full story of his ordeal. Combined with new perspective from Anderson's fellow hostages and hostage negotiators, we go inside the world's most iconic hostage crisis to reveal the intimate story of one of the most harrowing experiences imaginable.

Wed 2nd August

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. If this episode teaches us anything it's that revolutionaries come in many different forms. All thirteen of our subjects have been pioneers and leaders in their fields and have changed everything, from the way we watch films to how we connect and work. For some the word revolutionary might only be a title but for others, such as Castro and Ghandi, it is far more real. This episode of heroes and villains features some of the most famous and infamous faces of the twentieth century.

Wed 2nd August

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes goes in search of the beliefs of a man whose work is among the most devastatingly manipulated and misinterpreted in philosophical history. Nietzsche's dislike of systems and of seeking truths left his ideas ambiguous and sometimes incoherent.

Wed 2nd August

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Wed 2nd August

Monsters & Mysteries

Ever since UFO sightings began, reports of mysterious dark suited men have followed. These Men-in-Black have been spotted around the world, threatening witnesses and destroying evidence. Are they government agents, extraterrestrial or something demonic?

Wed 2nd August

Plane Resurrection

We take viewers into the cockpits of the worlds greatest restored fighting aircraft, and into the astonishing lives of the modern day heroes who are dedicating themselves to bringing these engineering masterpieces back to life. The series combines stunning aerial footage with the gritty realism of the dedication and ingenuity needed to breathe new life into the wrecks of battle. Each episode documents the 'life story' of an airframe, its history and pilots, through the eyes of the warbird community charged with bringing history back to flying, fire-breathing life. Rare archive footage of the brutal reality of aerial warfare mixes with expert analysis of the role these aircraft played. Behind the scenes sequences from the multi-million dollar modern rebuilds gives the viewer unique access to the engineers and volunteers facing the almost impossible task of building and flying aircraft that have lain dormant for half a century.

Thu 3rd August

Morning

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Thu 3rd August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

One of the main reasons for the success of the D-Day landings was the element of surprise, as incredibly the huge invasion force, congregating along the south coast of England went undetected by German Intelligence. Hitler's Generals believed the stormy weather meant it would be mission impossible, and it almost was.

Thu 3rd August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Thu 3rd August

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. If this episode teaches us anything it's that revolutionaries come in many different forms. All thirteen of our subjects have been pioneers and leaders in their fields and have changed everything, from the way we watch films to how we connect and work. For some the word revolutionary might only be a title but for others, such as Castro and Ghandi, it is far more real. This episode of heroes and villains features some of the most famous and infamous faces of the twentieth century.

Thu 3rd August

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes goes in search of the beliefs of a man whose work is among the most devastatingly manipulated and misinterpreted in philosophical history. Nietzsche's dislike of systems and of seeking truths left his ideas ambiguous and sometimes incoherent.

Thu 3rd August

Empire of the Tsars

Lucy Worsley travels to Russia to tell the extraordinary story of the dynasty that ruled the country for more than three centuries - the Romanovs.

Thu 3rd August

Monsters & Mysteries

Ever since UFO sightings began, reports of mysterious dark suited men have followed. These Men-in-Black have been spotted around the world, threatening witnesses and destroying evidence. Are they government agents, extraterrestrial or something demonic?

Thu 3rd August

Plane Resurrection

We take viewers into the cockpits of the worlds greatest restored fighting aircraft, and into the astonishing lives of the modern day heroes who are dedicating themselves to bringing these engineering masterpieces back to life. The series combines stunning aerial footage with the gritty realism of the dedication and ingenuity needed to breathe new life into the wrecks of battle. Each episode documents the 'life story' of an airframe, its history and pilots, through the eyes of the warbird community charged with bringing history back to flying, fire-breathing life. Rare archive footage of the brutal reality of aerial warfare mixes with expert analysis of the role these aircraft played. Behind the scenes sequences from the multi-million dollar modern rebuilds gives the viewer unique access to the engineers and volunteers facing the almost impossible task of building and flying aircraft that have lain dormant for half a century.

Thu 3rd August

Time Team

Tony Robinson and the team faced one of their biggest challenges when they travelled to York to excavate three sites from three different historical periods in just three days. The finds ranged from a Roman skeleton complete with hobnail boots to a Viking's discarded leather shoe and the pillars of a monastic hospital. But what does all this evidence reveal?

Thu 3rd August

History's Greatest Hoaxes

The endless quest to conclusively connect man with the ape seemed to have come to an end in the year 1912 with the discovery of a skull and jawbone in a quarry near the small village of Piltdown in Sussex. The scientific and academic world went into a frenzy. It was not until 1953 that they were proved to a cleverly aged human skull, the jawbone of an orangutan, and the teeth of a chimpanzee. The quest to uncover the identity of the hoaxer who fooled some very clever people for 40 years is told in this episode, as is the theory that it was a practical joke that actually set the study of human evolution back many years and had a lasting, damaging effect on our understanding of the subject.

Thu 3rd August

Inside: Lebanon Hostage Crisis

Every 20 minutes someone in the world is kidnapped. This film goes inside the shadowy world of hostages with journalist Terry Anderson who was held for seven years - longer than any Western hostage in history. On the 20th anniversary of his release, Anderson shares his gripping story in an exclusive interview that reveals the full story of his ordeal. Combined with new perspective from Anderson's fellow hostages and hostage negotiators, we go inside the world's most iconic hostage crisis to reveal the intimate story of one of the most harrowing experiences imaginable.

Thu 3rd August

The 101 Who Made The Twentieth Century

The history of mankind is a never-ending story of change, revolution, evolution - but surely no span of a hundred years can claim to have changed the world so dramatically, so rapidly and so irreversibly as the Twentieth Century. A century where the empires of the past crumbled to make way for new superpowers and a new age. Built on science, exploration, and a desire to express new creative possibilities. A century where the world was drawn into one war after another. But where radio, film, television, cars, planes and finally computers drew us closer together than at any other point in history. It was a century of unprecedented change. Change that was born out of the actions of individuals - what they created, what they discovered, what they destroyed.Who were the 101 people who drove the changes in every aspect of life that made the Twentieth Century and set-up the Twenty-First? A decade and a half since the close of the century we can take a considered look at the people most responsible for the events that changed their world and made ours. In this series we count down - from a hundred-and-one to number one - the names of those who, in the judgement of experts, including those who contribute to the series, most influentially shaped the century and our world. If this episode teaches us anything it's that revolutionaries come in many different forms. All thirteen of our subjects have been pioneers and leaders in their fields and have changed everything, from the way we watch films to how we connect and work. For some the word revolutionary might only be a title but for others, such as Castro and Ghandi, it is far more real. This episode of heroes and villains features some of the most famous and infamous faces of the twentieth century.

Thu 3rd August

Noon

Genius Of The Modern World

Bettany Hughes goes in search of the beliefs of a man whose work is among the most devastatingly manipulated and misinterpreted in philosophical history. Nietzsche's dislike of systems and of seeking truths left his ideas ambiguous and sometimes incoherent.

Thu 3rd August

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Thu 3rd August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

One of the main reasons for the success of the D-Day landings was the element of surprise, as incredibly the huge invasion force, congregating along the south coast of England went undetected by German Intelligence. Hitler's Generals believed the stormy weather meant it would be mission impossible, and it almost was.

Thu 3rd August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Thu 3rd August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Thu 3rd August

History's Greatest Hoaxes

An inadvertent hoax perhaps? Or a very clever ploy that made an unknown 23-year-old New York City radio producer famous overnight? Either way, Orson Welles' infamous broadcast adaptation of the HG Wells story on Halloween 1938 sent America into a tailspin as millions became convinced that Earth really was being invaded by aliens from Mars. It is one of the most extraordinary tales in broadcasting history and we'll show how and why in this episode.

Thu 3rd August

Evening

The Great Math Mystery

NOVA leads viewers on a mathematical mystery tour-a provocative exploration of math's astonishing power across the centuries. We discover math's signature in the swirl of a nautilus shell, the whirlpool of a galaxy, and the spiral in the centre of a sunflower. Math was essential to everything from the first wireless radio transmissions to the successful landing of rovers on Mars. But where does math get its power? Astrophysicist and writer Mario Livio, along with a colourful cast of mathematicians, physicists, and engineers, follow math from Pythagoras to Einstein and beyond, all leading to the ultimate riddle: Is math an invention or a discovery? Humankind's clever trick, or the language of the universe? Whether we think we're good with numbers or not, we all use math in our daily lives. The Great Math Mystery sheds fascinating light on how math works in our brains and ponders the ultimate mystery of why it works so well when decoding the universe.

Thu 3rd August

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Thu 3rd August

Marilyn Monroe Declassified

This program balances the image of the blonde bombshell icon we thought we knew, with information about her revealed in newly declassified FBI and CIA files. Here is the proof that her troubles were not all the product of her upbringing in an orphanage, abuse of prescription drugs and failed marriages. Beginning with her wedding to Communist-leaning playwright Arthur Miller (when she converted to Judaism), she was tailed, targeted and tormented by the FBI, CIA and Mafia - and ultimately, through affairs with powerful men, she was unwittingly caught in the middle of a vendetta of lethal forces. Dead at age 36, just months after singing "Happy Birthday, Mr President" at JFK's extravagant party, she was officially listed as a "probable suicide." The film makes a powerful case that the official conclusion was wrong.

Thu 3rd August

Monsters & Mysteries

Across America, unidentified creatures have terrorised entire towns. With an appetite for residents, cold-blooded, sewer-dwelling reptoids are said to lurk beneath Los Angeles-and in the forests of Tennessee hunters encounter the legendary Wildman.

Thu 3rd August

Ancient Aliens

The Aborigines of Australia are the oldest, continuously surviving society on Earth. The stories preserved in their oral tradition are said to date back over 60,000 years, to an era they call the 'Dreamtime' and contain fascinating descriptions about how life began and our planet was seeded by extraterrestrials. Linguistic experts have just discovered that many of these indigenous legends can be scientifically verified by examining the geological record. Ancient Astronaut theorists propose that if the Aboriginal's oral traditions are indeed this accurate, then perhaps the tales they tell about sky gods visiting Earth in large, fire-spewing crafts are true as well. Could the ultimate evidence about our extraterrestrial past be found within the sacred stories, sites, and rituals of Australia's Wisdom Keepers?

Fri 4th August

Morning

The Rise Of The Nazi Party

Rising unemployment, economic turmoil, attacks on immigrants, mainstream politicians who don't listen to popular fears, voters turning to extremist parties; it's the 21st-century but it could be the 1930s. The election successes of the neo-Nazi parties in Europe reveal that voters are hungry again for populist politicians who express their anger towards failing governments; but do people really want an authoritarian, nationalist government in power? This program reveals how the National Socialists exploited the economic turmoil of their time, rose to power in Germany in 1933 and then led their nation into a nightmare of brutality, genocide and military defeat. This documentary series tells the true story of the rise of the Nazis through archive film footage, interviews and dramatic reconstructions, and carries on the chilling story after the war to chart the current rise of the neo-Nazis. This program is a warning from the past that is only too relevant today.

Fri 4th August

WWII: Countdown to Victory

As the liberation of France got underway, the citizens of a nation oppressed since 1940 celebrated the Allied arrival with rapture. But there was still much to be achieved, on both the Western and Eastern Fronts. For Hitler the writing was on the wall, and when one of his own, Claus von Stauffenberg attempted to assassinate the Fuhrer, he very nearly succeeded.

Fri 4th August

Secret War

From May 1940 until June 1944, Europe was overrun by the Nazis. While the Red Army engaged the Third Reich in the East, Britain and its Allies stalled over opening up a Western Front. Churchill tried to placate Stalin's howls of rage by initiating a saturation bombing campaign of Germany. The Allies also waged another deadly war on the ground. That war was secret. It involved countless acts of courage, ruthlessness, double-dealing and betrayal. No agent anywhere on the continent ever knew who they could trust. Some people became double agents as they believed it the best strategy for staying alive. Some played both sides for the thrill of the danger. This is the story of the operations and the people who waged the secret war and set Europe ablaze. Often the blaze stoked such animosities that the fires of intrigue and betrayal never went out.

Fri 4th August

Weapons at War

From man's earliest battles to the combat visions of the future, these documentaries richly illustrate the history of weaponry throughout the ages - and what weapons will be in the future.

Fri 4th August

Conspiracy

Take a walk through the shadowy boundaries that lay between fact and fiction. From the media mogul undercover MI6 and Mossad spy, alleged UFO sighting cover-ups by the UK government, to the murky world of Hollywood - each chapter connects the conspiracy theory dots. Each episode will select an historical 'fact' and examine it through a conspiracy theorist's lens. These theories seek to expose as myth much of what we accept as truth. Did Hitler really die in 1945? Did a Russian nuclear submarine attempt to launch a nuclear missile at Hawaii in 1968? And was Diana ruthlessly murdered by members of her own family? These theories, as we'll find out are, for some, far closer to the truth than you would have ever imagined.

Fri 4th August

Marilyn Monroe Declassified

This program balances the image of the blonde bombshell icon we thought we knew, with information about her revealed in newly declassified FBI and CIA files. Here is the proof that her troubles were not all the product of her upbringing in an orphanage, abuse of prescription drugs and failed marriages. Beginning with her wedding to Communist-leaning playwright Arthur Miller (when she converted to Judaism), she was tailed, targeted and tormented by the FBI, CIA and Mafia - and ultimately, through affairs with powerful men, she was unwittingly caught in the middle of a vendetta of lethal forces. Dead at age 36, just months after singing "Happy Birthday, Mr President" at JFK's extravagant party, she was officially listed as a "probable suicide." The film makes a powerful case that the official conclusion was wrong.

Fri 4th August

Monsters & Mysteries

Across America, unidentified creatures have terrorised entire towns. With an appetite for residents, cold-blooded, sewer-dwelling reptoids are said to lurk beneath Los Angeles-and in the forests of Tennessee hunters encounter the legendary Wildman.

Fri 4th August

Ancient Aliens

The Aborigines of Australia are the oldest, continuously surviving society on Earth. The stories preserved in their oral tradition are said to date back over 60,000 years, to an era they call the 'Dreamtime' and contain fascinating descriptions about how life began and our planet was seeded by extraterrestrials. Linguistic experts have just discovered that many of these indigenous legends can be scientifically verified by examining the geological record. Ancient Astronaut theorists propose that if the Aboriginal's oral traditions are indeed this accurate, then perhaps the tales they tell about sky gods visiting Earth in large, fire-spewing crafts are true as well. Could the ultimate evidence about our extraterrestrial past be found within the sacred stories, sites, and rituals of Australia's Wisdom Keepers?

Fri 4th August

Time Team

On the surface it looks just like any other large Lincolnshire field. But when a pipe was laid across it a couple of years previously the trench dug then revealed a number of shallow graves. An exploratory dig in 1998 identified them as Anglo-Saxon, on a site which also threw up large quantities of Roman remains. An earlier water pipe, laid in 1954, had uncovered a lot of Roman pottery here too. So what did it all indicate? And what could Time Team learn about this possible Anglo-Saxon cemetery and former Roman settlement in the three days available?