In Dublin, Irish nationalists led by Patrick Pearse launch the Easter Rebellion against British rule.
The nationalists attacked British provincial government headquarters across the Irish capital and seized the Dublin post office. Following these successes, they proclaimed the independence of Ireland, and by the next morning were in control of much of the city. Later that day, however, British authorities launched a counteroffensive, and by April 29 the uprising had been crushed.
Pearce and 14 other nationalist leaders were executed for their parts in the Easter Rebellion, and were held up as martyrs by many in Ireland. Armed protest continued, and in 1922 most of Ireland won independence with the declaration of the Irish Free State. Six northern counties of the island remained part of United Kingdom, and some nationalists reorganized themselves into the Irish Republican Army (IRA) to continue their struggle for Irish independence.